1.带to不定式用法之一：带to不定式有逻辑宾语在前时，to后动词用及物动词；不及物时需跟介词。The work is too hard for me to do. (work做及物动词do的逻辑宾语)
I have nothing to say. (nothing做及物动词say的逻辑宾语)
I have a letter to write. (letter是及物动词write的逻辑宾语) 而以下情况有介词：
2有时主语可以省略，形成祈使句如：Work hard＝(you should) work hard.
I have a pen to write a letter with. ( 用钢笔写信，所以要有“用”字，故加with。)
The zoo is not a good place for animals to live in。
例:Don't be silly.（别傻了）Don't fool around.（别游手好闲）
1.1.常出现在助动词之后。I can do it.He should finish it.We must obey the law
(“住在动物园里”，zoo是live in的逻辑宾语，故不及物动词live加介词in. )
1.2.原形不定式与知觉动词：表“看”、“听”、“感觉”的知觉动词之后，可接原形动词作宾语补语，表已发生的事实。看：watch,look at,observe听：hear,listen to感觉：feel。
Tom has no friends to talk to. (friends 是talk to的逻辑宾语，to不可少。)
I saw him enter the room.
He runs too fast for us to catch up with. (he是catch up with的逻辑宾语，带with。) There are no seats to sit on. (坐在座位上，故sit后要加on。)
The tulip is purple.
Inever heard him speak English.
2.(a) little / (a) few: 1few，little“几乎没有；少”否定词。few加可数名词复数， little加不可数名词。 There is little water in the bottle, is there? (前否定，后肯定)
I felr the house shake.
Tom is so shy that he has few friends。
She uses her charm to manipulate people.
I was watching the swallows fly to and fro.
2a few“一些”肯定词，加可数名词复数； a little“一些；一点”也是肯定词，加不可数名词。 Tom is not an Englishman , but he knows a little English。
3另外，在too, very, so等词后用few, little; 在only, just, still等词后用a few, a little. 而quite a few / a little 都译为“很多”，分别相当于many和much。
Wasting your time is stupid.
(注：有时a little…。。并不是固定短语。如： a little sheep译为“一只小羊”)
Let me try it.=Allow me to try it.
3.及物动词+副词：put on (穿上) / put off (推迟) / put away (把…整理好) / put up (举起，搭起，挂起，张贴) / put down (放下) / put out(扑灭)； break down(损坏，倒塌)；
To read books is the purpose of learning more knowledge.
I had him warsh the car.=I got to warsh the car.除have外，let ,make,bid均可用于被动语态，且要用加to不定式。
turn on(打开) / turn off (关闭) / turn up (调大) / turn down(关小)； get back(取回)；
They bade him do it.=He was bidden to do it.
use up(用光)； cut up(切碎) eat up(吃光) sell out(卖完) cheer up(振作)
It makes me calm to listen to light music .
give away(赠送) / give out(发放) / give up(放弃) / give back(归还)； pick up(捡起、拿起)
**固定搭配it is no use＋~ing*
You should help him study the lesson.（原形不定式）
try out(验证) / try on(试穿)； ring up/ call up(打电话)； clean up / out (打扫干净)；
＝it is useless＋to do
He refused to study the lesson.（置to不定式）
set up(成立)； think up(想出；想起)； hand in (上交) / hand out(分发；散发)；
＝it is of no use＋to do
fix up(修理)； work out(算出) dress up(打扮)； help out(帮人解决)；
It is no use crying over spilt milk.（覆水难收）
keep off / keep out(阻止；挡住)； take off(脱下) / take away(拿走) / take out(拿出)；
look up(查找) / look over(仔细查看)； throw away / off (抛弃) wake up(叫醒)； write down(写下)； let down(使沮丧)； make up(编造、组成)； set off(激起、触发)
5.2whether从句一般疑问句冠以whether且将主语和助动词或be动词位置还原为陈述句顺序，例如：Is she ugly?→Whether she is ugly.或did he come?→Whether he came.
It is my goal to marry her.
4.as……as用法：中间加形容词和副词原级。1和…一样… His room is as big as mine。
To take a trip around the world has been my dream.
He runs as fast as I do / me / I. You should keep the room as clean as your brother’s。
例：what are you doing?→what you are doing.
3.1.3不定式作主语之结构变化：不定式作主语时，若短语中最后一个词为宾语，该宾语可移至句首作主语。例如：To please my father is difficult.→My father is difficult to please.
2as…as possible / sb can “尽可能…” We went there as soon as possible。
When did he come?→when he came.
Where did she see him?→where she saw him.
Listen to the teacher as carefully as you can. He went there as quickly as he could。
Who are you?→who you are.
He intended to visit Paris.
3有些短语有几个意思：as soon as 和…一样快；一…就…; as much as和…一样多；多达； as long as和…一样长；长达；只要； as well as和…一样好；和…一样；
Why did he write the article?→why he wrote the article.
3.2.2作不完全及物动词的宾语时，用it作形式宾语后接补语再接真正的宾语不定式如make it a rule +to V.。
as far as远达；就…来说 (as…as…在否定句中也可说so…as…。)
Which did they choose?which they chose.
也可表示倍数： This room is twice as big as that one. 这个房间是那个房间的两倍大。
Which was bought?→which was bought.
3.3.1.不定式作表语此时，主语均为表意愿、企图的名词。my plan is to see her.
5.prefer用法：prefer sth to sth 或 prefer doing sth to doing sth。“比起…更喜欢…”
How can we get more money?→how we can get more money.
3.3.2.下列句型中be动词后的to可省略：All you have to do is(to)take a good rest.All I can do (is) wait.What you should do is simply (to)appologize to him.All I did yesterday was (to)eat and sleep.
prefer to do sth rather than do sth宁愿…也不愿…
若单独一个prefer，和like 用法类似，后接 to do sth 或 doing sth “更喜欢做某事”
honesty is the best policy
（名词性从句主语）is a proverb (which)we should always keep in
- some-, any-, every-用法：1some-“某～，一些～”，用于肯定的陈述句中。
上句主语太长可变形为It is a proverb(which) we should always keep in mind that honesty is the best pilicy.
4.2.所修饰的名词要作不定式短语中动词的主语或宾语不然就是短语中介词的宾语，若是be动词就作表语。I have somthing to do.（修饰代词something）there is one thing to be done.
I have something to tell you. Maybe somebody has taken it。
5.4.2名词性从句作及物动词（transitive verb vt.）宾语（object）
I have no friend to advise me.（作advise的主语）
例：I know that he will go aboard in the near future.
I want something to eat.（作宾语eat）
Why not ask somebody to help you? Shall we give him something to eat?
They didn't care how i would deal with the tact.
I have no one to talk to（作介词to的宾语）
What about some milk? Could you please lend me some chairs?
He wonders whether she has completed the object.
Will you buy me some books? May I give you some tea? Would you like some milk?
5.4.3名词性从句作介词（preposition prep. ）宾语（object）
He is to come tomorrow.=He is going to come tomorrow.
在一些”do some…”短语中， 即使是疑问句中， some也不变为any. 如：
You are to do it=you should do it.
Will you do some washing next Sunday? 这些短语有：
I am worried about whether he can catch the train in time.
Such a lazy man is to be fired=Such a lazy man should be fired.
do some shopping / cleaning / cooking / sweeping / washing 等。
He remains curious about why she neglects him.
My hat was nowhere tobe found.=My hat could not be found anywhere.
2any-, 在疑问句中仍译为“某～，一些～”Do you have anything to say?
I wonder about what happened.
Is anybody in the house? Have you seen it anywhere?
Don't break in when he is telling the story.
在if 引导的句中，常用any. 如：If you have any water, please give me some。
22.214.171.124the fact that遇介词后，非得用that从句时，在介词后加the fact作介宾，接that从句作the fact的同位语。
表意愿的动词如：expect,hope,intend,want等，①用一般过去时，再接to have+p.p.形成表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气，等于would have+p.p.本来想……IWould have done it.but I was busy.=I intended to have done it,but I was busy.=I had intended to do it,but I was busy.②如上例，也可以把这些表意愿的动词改为过去完成时再接不定式，同样表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气，句型为expected to have p.p.=had expected to+原形动词。
在肯定句和否定句中译为“任何～” You may put the box anywhere in the room。
I'm sure of the fact that he went out in the second round of the tounament.
6.2.was/were to have+p.p.=should have+p.p.（本应该……）本结构也可表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气。
He is taller than any other student in the class. We won’t have anything to eat now。
126.96.36.199习惯用语*in that和except that及**notwithstanding that***
They were to have started outearly,but it was raining heavily.=They should have started out early,but it was raining heavily.
He is talented in that he can speak eight different languages.＝He is talented because he can speak eight different languages.
7.不定式的省略：不定式短语中的动词若在前面的句中已经出现过，为避免重复，可以省略但保留to。You may go if you want to (go).
Is everybody here?-No，Tom and Lucy have asked for leave。
He is nice except that sometimes he lies
The glass was broken, and the water went everywhere。
Notwithstanding that she is nice,I don't like her.＝Despite the fact that she is nice,I don't like her.＝In spite of the fact that she is nice,I don't like her.
To think that such a lazy boy should have passed the exam!
7.动词时态和形式：八个时态：一般现在时、 现在进行时(am / is / are + v.ing)、
一般将来时(will / shall / be going to+动词原形)、 一般过去时、 过去进行时(was / were + v.ing)、 现在完成时(have / has + v. 过去分词)、 过去完成时(had + v. 过去分词)、过去将来时(would + v. 原形) 六个形式： 原形； 过去式(规则的加ed)；
过去分词(规则的加ed)； 第三人称单数(加s / es)； 现在分词(v.ing)； 带to不定式。
When to meet them is the question which we have to consider＝when we should meet them is the question we have to consider.
He help ed me(to) do the work.
8.if / whether区别：if 如果(引导条件状语从句) / 是否(引导宾语从句)
Where to redeem the coupon was appointed＝where we should redeem the coupon was appointed.
Whether to divorce annoys me＝whether we should divorce annoys me.
He helped me with the work.
Do you know if he will go to the post office? If he goes there, I will ask him to buy me some stamps. 两个if, 前者“是否”；后者“如果”，观察其后时态的不同。(各见语法1、2)
How to increase our profit is the point of the conference.
whether“无论”引导让步状语从句 / “是否”引导宾语从句(相当于if)
He helped(to)do the work
都译为“是否”时，whether可接or not, 也可接带to不定式。而if 则不可。
What to do was wroten in the brochure.＝what we should do was wroten in the brochure.
Whom to see is a mystery.＝whom we should see is a mystery.
He helped with the work.
9.因为：because, 常是对why的回答，语气最强。位置：Because…, …或…, because…。
Which to annul is apuzzl.＝which we should annul is a puzzl.
10.1.do nothing but+原形动词：
From Beijing to Moscow is about 7000 kilometers.＝It is 7000 kilometers from Moscow to Beijing.
He did nothing but(did) eat all day.(but是并列连词，前面的did是及物动词后面的did强调语气可省略）
10.2.choose/expect/want/desire nothing+ to+原形动词。He wanted nothing but (wanted)to sleep.
10.3.be interested in nothing but+动名词/名词。He is interested in nothing but(is interested in)singing
1.1完全不及物动词（complete intransitive verb 简写c.vi.）
10.4.enjoy nothing but+名词/动名词
1.2不完全不及物动词（incomplete intransitive verb简写i.vi.）
I enjoy nothing but(enjoy)dancing.
1.3完全及物动词（complete transitive verb简写c.vt.）
10.5.can't but+原形动词=can't help+动名词
1.4不完全及物动词（incomplete transitive verb简写i.vt.）
When I heard the story,I couldn't but laugh=When I heard the story,I couldn't help laughing.=When I heard the story,I couldn't help but laugh.
看到他；他被我 看到.意思没毛病，所以see是及物动词，再如:dance我 跳舞他，他被我 跳舞所以dance是不及物动词。上列公式中宾语可任意替换以符合文意，如I climbed the wall;The wall was climbed by me.可见climb是及物动词。
Sing 唱歌vi. 唱（一首歌）vt.
Run 经营（企业）vt. 跑步vi.
I came to see her（作副词修饰动词came）
Dream your dream;live a happy life;smile a bright smile;laugh a hearty laugh;sigh a deep sigh;sleep asound sleep
He rushed all the way here to catch the train.该句中 all the way和here都是副词修饰动词rushed这里副词不定式修饰he rushed all the way here整句。
注意：表“目的”的副词不定式修饰，通常置于动词之后，但也可移到主语之前，须用逗号相隔。例：he sang asong to please her.=To please her,he sang a song.
You should work very hard to win the award.=To win the award,you should work very hard.
Something is happening.
11.3.不定式移至主语之前，一方面保持其副词特性，修饰句中动词或整个句子；但也兼有形容词功能修饰句中主语，该主语通常是表人的名词或代词。不定式在主语之前，不定式所表的动作必须是其所修饰的主语造成的动作。修饰动词的表目的之副词不定式可由下列短语取代：he sang a song to please her=He sang a song in order to please her.=he sang a song so as to please her.=he sang a song with an eye to pleasing her.=He sang a song with a view to pleasing her.
He is able to handle the problem.
He dided in an accident.（地点状语）
He is apt to lie.
She left because she didn't want to hear noise.（原因状语）
The book is good to read.
He study hard.（副词,努力地，hard修饰完全不及物动词，学习，study）
6.不完全不及物动词incomplete intransitive verb即系动词，自身意思不完全，所以无法单独存在，之后需要有名词、形容词或名词对等语（如代词、动名词，不定式，名词性从句名词短语等）作表语（subjective complement 简称s.c.）以补充意思的不足。
He is old enough to go swimming alone
You are a good student.
My trouble is that i have no money.
To tell te truth,I don't like him.説真的，
She became happy.
To be frank with you,he is good for nothing.老实说
To do him justice,he has done his best.平心而论
To make matters worse,it began to rain.更糟的是，下雨了。
①名词He is a great hero.
He is nice,to be sure.but i don't like him.
②名词性从句The problem is whether he can join us.
He is,so to speak,a rascal.
③名词短语The question is when to set out.
He knows French,not to mention English.
④作名词的动名词短语My hobby is collecting stamps.
⑤作名词的不定式短语My purpose here is to see her.
13.1.单一动词时，例如：It seems that he workes hard.→He seems to work hard.
⑥形容词she is beautiful.
It happened that I was there.→I happened to be there.
⑦作形容词的现在分词The story is interesting.
It is said that he is good.→He is said to be good.类似的还有（reported,rumored,known,thought,believed,等过去分词）
⑧作形容词的过去分词I am interested in the story.
13.2.时态不同时，to之后加have（曾经，已经）+过去分词。例如：It seems that he worked hard.→He seems to have worked hard.
⑨昨形容词的介词短语The book is of great value.
It is said that he was a thug in the past.→He is said to have been a thug in the past.
⑩地点副词They are upstairs.
13.3.Prove可作不完全不及物动词，表“显示”，“结果是”例：What he said proved to be true.（不定式作表语）
11地点副词短语she is in danger.
The report proved to be false.=The report proved false.
They are at home.
常用的动词有：get,cause,lead,allow,permit,advise persuade,enable,tell,beg,ask,order,want,expect,wish ,intend等。例如：
The man is tired.译作这人感到很累。（形容词作表语）
The sad story caused him to cry.
His speech led me to understand the importance of learning English.
The man was killed.（被动语态）若译作这人感到很杀，则语意不通，所以是被动语态，应译作这人被杀了。
He advise me not to smoke again.
现在分词：be后和主语不能互换He is washing the car.他正在洗车。
His timely help enabled me to finished it early.
动名词:be后和主语可互换位置His job is washing the car.他的工作是洗车washing the car is his job.洗车是他的工作。
I expect him to do it.
I'll get somebody to help you.
例：He became furious.
You will become a prudent student if you study intently.
All we can do now is wish for a miracle.
She is becoming more more charming.
After failing,he became depressed.
He is studying.
His face turned pale when he heard the news.
The problem should be carefuly studied.
The leaves are turning yellow.
His face turned red with shame when heviewed the scene.
He enjoys studying.
Jack is a soldier-turned farmer.（军人转业的）。
The student raised a confusing question.
Th teacher was confused.
He got mad.
She became beautiful.
Things have become good.
The retiring teacher walked into the classroom.（将要退的）
Theretied soldier died last month.（已退的）
①若get用于进行时的结构中，之后可接任何形容词的比较级形态作表语，即:be getting more and more ＋adjective.
She is getting more and more beautiful.
The baby is tiring.（宝宝真累人）
Things are getting better and better.
He seems tired.（他似乎累了）
The experience is thrilling（这经历够刺激）
He became more and more interested in learning English.（他对学英语越来越感兴趣）
If you are not careful,you'llget hurt.＝If you are careless,you'll be hurt.
6.1.5.seem＝appear（似乎）后接不定式作表语he seems to know it.
He was killed.
但在seem to be＋名词/形容词，结构中，可省略to be直接用名词/形容词作表语
He was killing the termites.
He seems to be happy.＝He seems happy.
He was writing a letter.
The letter was being written.
His idea sounds funny.
Ifound him killing termites或I found the termites killed.
It looks interesting.
3.3.2不及物动词变分词作宾补，一律用现在分词I keep John waiting.
The soup smells nice.
The cake tastes delicious.
The wounded were rushed to the hospital.=The wounded people were rushed to the hospital.
The stone felt rough.
The unexpected has happen.=something (which) we didn't expect happened.
例：It sounds like a good idea.
That material feels like silk.
It's freezing/biting cold today.
That tastes like fish.
The tea is boiling hot.
②feel like＋名词，译作：感觉像……；when mary said she would mary me,I felt like a newborn baby.
He was hopping mad on hearing dismissal.
Feel like＋动名词，译作：想要……。I feel like taking a walk.＝I would like to take a walk.
We 're having a ripping good time.
The doctor felt my forehead and said i had a fever.
An estimated 54people were killed in the air crash.=It is estimated that 54 people were killed in the air crash.
Don't taste that food;it has spoiled.
He smelled something burning.
He came home crying.
He came here to see me.
例：He looked into the case carefully.
I left hom at six in the morning,arriving here about four in the afternoon.
He ran away quickly,looking as if something terrible had happened.
She looked happily at me.
He looked carefully into the case.
The sun setting,the cowboy rode back to the ranch.
Tom fell ill and couldn't attend school today.汤姆今天病了不能上学了。
Being sick of studying,he ran away from home.
Provision ran short.粮食不够了。
Idon't know how he came to be so popular.
此处came to be相当于gradually became逐渐变成。
The document proved to be a forgery.这文件显现出是个伪造品（此处prove作系动词用后接表语）
This being the case,you'd better be careful.
All things considered,I decided to major in business administration.其中all things considered原本为all things were bonsidered（所有情况都被考虑过了）be动词were变成being被省略了。
He was reading a book,and his wife was knitting beside him.→He was reading a book,his wife knitting beside him.
Hdidn't buy the bike.
We will go picnicking tomorrow,if weather permits.→we will go picnicking tomorrow,weather permitting.
I9.2代词作及物动词宾语代词要用宾格me them him her。
I don't like John.In fact,I hate him.
John,who is a good student of mine,studies hard.→John,a good student of mine,stidies hard.Not knowing how to deal with the problem,I consulted him.
As I entered the room,I found books scattered around.
I want to go home.
He said goodbye to her,waving his hand.
I hope to have my own house.
He came into the room (being)barefooted.
I desire to see her again.
If I'm free,I'll go with you.→If(being)free,I'll go with you.
sshe considered studying aboard.
Once I'm rich,I'll buy a car.→Once rich,I'll buy a car.
I once imagined going on a date with her.
Though I have money,I don't buy a car→Though having money,I don't buy a car.
Ican't fancy getting along with them.
He risked doing it.
The girl has big eyes.→I like the big-eyed girl.
I avoided hearing it again.
She has red hair.→Do you see the red-haired girl over there?
He escaped being killed in the accident.
The one-legged soldier is a hero.
They suggested postponing the convention.
I recommended being on the lookout for idioms.
I enjoy playing a video game.
Generally speaking,men are physically stronger than women.
He resents working overtime.
Strictly speaking,he is not good enough.
She practiced playing the cello.
Judging from his appearance,he seems to be rich.
He stoped smoking.
Frankly speaking,he is not the man I want.
You must quit smoking.most important of all,you should start taking exercise.
Talking of novels,have you read his works?
Resist＋V-ing抗拒……I couldn't resist having some more ice cream.我忍不住要再吃些冰激凌。我不能抗拒再吃些冰激凌。
According to John,the fire broken out at ten in the morning.
Refuse toV拒绝……I refuse to do it.我拒绝去做此事
Seeing that you have no time,I will have Peter replace you.
Expect to V＝anticipate V-ing期望……
Stop V-ing＝quit V-ing＝cease to V＝cease V-ing不再……
I started the ball rolling（我给开个头）
He stoped writing after he got maried.
The news set my heart throbbing.(这消息使我心悸不已）
He decided to quit smoking.
I'm sorry to have kept you waiting.
They cease working at exactly5:00p.m.＝They cease to woek at exactly 5:00p.m .
I couldn't make myself understood.
Stop to V停下来去……。He stoped to talk to me when he saw me.
He got a new suit made.
特：continue start begin like love hate可用动名词也可用不定式作宾语，意思不变。
You should have it unsaid.
He continued trying his luck at the casino.
I like my eggs half boiled.
They started to build the bridge.
Ihad my watch stolen.
He love listening music.
Working with him is fun.
They feel(that)it is impossible to win the game.
Seeing is believing.
He think(that)the book is worth reading.
Losing his fortune drove him mad.
Not knowing what to do was an embarrassment for him.
I don'tknow whether the typhoon will come＝I don't know if the typhoon will come.
I doubt whether the man is competent enough to handle it.＝I doubt if the man is competent enough to handle it.
Helping others gives me great pleasure.
10.不完全及物动词此类及物动词加了宾语后意思不完全，需要加上补语（complement）以补全意思之不足。例如：make作“制造”或“做”之意解时，为完全及物动词；若当“使”或“叫”之意解时，则为不完全及物动词。he made mary.意思不完全，需要补全。he made mary happy.他使马丽幸福。形容词happy作为宾语补足语（objective complement），以使句意完全。不完全及物动词的分类及用法归纳如下：
It gives me great leasure to help others.
10.1.1叫……(have,make)＋宾语＋原形动词（作宾补）。I made him wash dishes.
要注意的是：只有在it is no use结构中，真正的主语才用动名词。
Ihad Tom report to me.
It's no use crying over spilt milk.
It's no use reasoning with such a stubborn man.
a)get也可表“叫……”之意，但只能用不定式作宾补。I got him to drive the car.
b)make也可用于被动语态，have和get只能用于主动语态。I made him wash the car→He was made to wash the car.（变被动语态时，原形动词要变成不定式）。
His hobby is jogging.
a)let＋宾语＋原形动词（作宾补）。I let her try it.
He let me in.
②有时be之后的V-ing可能是动名词也可能是现在分词，由于动名词和主语都有名词性质，故有A is B=B is A，只需将主语和V-ing互换位置，如语意通顺，该V-ing为动名词。
Don't let him out.
This performance let me down.这表演让我失望。
He detests gambling.
Some people don't enjoy smoking.
I forced him to recite the text.
I remember seeing him.
Iasked her to type the document.
I encouraged him to learn more about chess.
They compelled me to read the book against my will.
3.2.anticipate V-ing=expect to V期望……
He told me to finish the work by eleven.
I anticipate cooperating with him.=I expect to cooperate with him.
3.3.stop+V-ing=quit Ving=cease V-ing=cease toV停止从事……
He stoped/quited/ceased writing when he saw me.=Heceased to writing when he saw me.
The trip made her happy.
3.4.stop +to V.停下原来的工作而去作……
His teacher made him a excellent scholar.
He stoped to talk to mewhen he saw me.
See,observe,watch,notic,look at,hear,listen to,feel此类动词可用作完全及物动词，加上宾语后无需再加补语。
He allowed/permitted smoking.
He felt a pain in his back.
He forbade smoking.（动名词作宾语）
I was listening to music.
He forbade me to smoke.（不定式作宾补）
Did you see them?
Isaw him dance.我看见他跳舞了。
As i push the door open,i felt my legs trembling.
Iforgot mailing that letter.
Isaw him lifted.我看见他被掉起来了。
I regret doung it.
I notice the window closed.我注意到窗户被关上了。
3.6.2.表以后要做或未完成的事时，用不定式：remember to V（记得要……）
forget to V（忘记要……）
We elect him chairman of the commitee.
regret to V（遗憾要……）
The colonel assigned him platoon commander.
I'll remember to see him tomorrow.
I forgot to mail the letter.
I regret to tell you the bad news.
We regardlook uponthink ofseeview him as a genius.
Imistook the long-haired boy for a girl.
His illness prevented us from starting our own business.
We considerthinkdeem him to be a genius to be nice.
The book is worth reading.
We considerdeemthink him a geniusnice.
Thcar is worth a fortune.
The issue is worth paying attention to.
Iam sick of his rude attitude.
I'm sick of associating with him.
The issue is worthy of everyone's attention.
③Worthwhile adj.值得的，置于名词前，也可置于It is 后，
I regard his behavior as inappropriate.
That's a worthwhile book to read.
John works hard,so i take it granted that he will be successful.
It is worthwhile to read that book=It pays to read that book.
Ithink it fun to climb mountains.
I find it necessary to do the work.
That he teaches well is something that pleases me.→His teaching well is something that pleases me.
Ibelieve ir worthwhile to study hard.
That they helped John with the work won our great admiration.→Their helping John with the work won our great admiration.
I deem it an honor to give this speech.
5.2.that引导的名词性从句作表认知的及物动词（think believe,find feel）的宾语时，化简为所有格分词结构
Ibelieve that he works hard.→I believe his working hard.
I think that it is interesting to climb moubtains.
I believe that it is worthwhile to study hard.
I enjoyed John's joining us.
Would you mind my opening the window?
I think(that) it is interesting to climb mountains.及I think it interesting to climb mountains.两句句型结构不同（前者为完全及物动词，后者为不完全及物动词），但语意完全相同。
I don't like his smoking here.
I made it arule to get up early.
In spite of my helping him,he failed.
Working hard made it possible for him to win the honour.
In spite of the sun shining,the air was very cold.
d)find believe think deem consider这五词作不完全及物动词时，也不得直接that引导的名词性从句作宾语，一定要用形式宾语it取代。
I find it wonderful that he sings so well.
a Sleeping car
The difficulty of the job made it necessary that he should do it with care.
a dining room
I believe it essential that he should work hard.
a walking stick手杖
a laughing stock笑柄
The expereience turnedchanged him into an excellent scholar.
a writing pad便签纸
I set her free.
a starting poit起点
I painted thwall white.
a visiting card名片
The sight struck him dumb.
The baby cried itself to sleep.
Their assistance will render success certain.
The misfortune nearly drove him mad.
Writing letters is a trying job for me.=writing of letters is a tring job for me.
He named thebaby Lucy.
Shooting birds is forbidden here.=shooting of birds is forbidden here.
We called him a liar.
Dn't leave the door open.
As an old saying goes"Honesty is the best policy."
You must keep yourteeth clean.
A knocking at the door was heard.
I want the job done bo later than five.
He has a good understanding of the problem.
Help me(to)find my key.
Don't forget to take your belongs （恒用复数）with you.
11授予动词（dative verb)为及物动词的一种，只是接两个宾语。第一个宾语叫间接宾语(indirect object简写i.o.)表授予的对象；第二个叫直接宾语(direct object简写d.o.)表授予的东西。
9.1there is no V-ing=It is impossible to V 不可能……
I will give you the watch.
9.2.It is no use V-ing（……是无用的）
Please lend me your book.
It is no use trying to escape.=It is of no use to try to escape.
I bought him a iphone.
9.3.cannot help/resist/refrain from V-ing忍不住……。
Iasked him a question.
On hearing it,he cried.
I gave th book to him.
I send the letter to him.
2.助动词的种类：be(am,is,are,was,were)have(hws,had)do(does,did)shall(should)will(would)can(could)may(might)must need ought to ,dare,used to
I told the details to him.
I taught English to them.
He is handsome.
I made a desk for him.
They are good students.
I asked a question of him.凡表“要求”的动词皆如此。
He is reading a book.他正在念书（进行时）
Ididn't expect much of him.
He was elected chairman.他当选主席（被动语态）
She required nothing of me.
He demanded little of me.
He has written the letter.
I had finished the task before he came.
2.3.do(does,did)do you see that?
Ididn't know what to do.
He robbed me of my money.
The court deprived him of all his civil right.
②疑问句:dDid you understand it?
The captain relieved the platoon leader of his command.
He worked hard.→He did work hard.
I can not rid myself of the painful memory.=Ican not get rid of the painful memory
Never did I know that he was so stupid.
I'll get rid of those chores（表动作）要摆脱
I'm glad to be rid of those chores.（表状态）已摆脱。
Did you read this book?Yes,I did(=read this book)
I work as hard as he does(=works)
Youshould breakrid yourself of the bad habit of smoking.
The doctor cured him of his disease=the doctor cured his disease.
有Provid apply offer furnish present等。除offer以外，其余的词要与介词我with 连用
He offered me all i needed=He provided me with all i needed.=he supplied me with all i needed=He furnished me with all i needed.=He offered all i needed to me=He provided all i needed for me.
Shall I open the door?
Offer也有表“愿意、主动提议”时，接不定式作宾语。He heard my situation,he offered to help me.
Shall we go for a walk?
He present a watch to me.
③命令对方时：You shall….=you must.你必须……。You shall obey the law.
He explained the reason to me.
例：Article One:You(或one)shall wash your(或one's)hands after using the toilet.
He introduced th girl to me.
He recommended th method to me.
You shall have the present.
He proposed a motion to the commitee.
特：I took apicture of him.照片中有他用of;
One should be kind to others.
I took apicture for him.目的是为了给他，照片中不一定有他。
①It is （natural/proper/right/advisable/desirable/no wonder） that…should…译作“……会……”乃自然的/适当的/正当的/恰当的/较好的/无疑的
It is natural that he (should )get angry.（他会生气是自然的。）
②It is (necessary/imperative/essential/important/urgent) that…should…译作（……应当……是有必要的）本结构中should常可省略保留其后的原形动词。
It is important that he(should)finish the job before leaving.
It is imperative that he do the work now.（他现在应该赶紧作这事。）
③It is (surprising/amazing)that…should（居然）…译作令人惊讶的是……居然……。
He went away.
It is surprising that he should be so kind.（令人惊讶的是他居然这么和气。）
He went to the station（介词短语作副词用）
④It is (a pity/a regret/regrettable)that …should…译作令人遗憾的是……居然……。
It is a pity that he should be so rude.真遗憾他居然这么粗鲁。
He looks happy.
He suggested that we (should)leave at once.
He ate it.
He wants to do it.（不定式作意愿动词的宾语）
He came early lest he (should) be late.=He came early for fear that he might be late.
He knows( that) she is wrong.（that名词性从句作宾语）
I wonder whether he'll come.（whether名词性从句作宾语）
If you should be late again,you will spoil the plan.
They enjoy dancing.（动名词作宾语）
I don't know how to do it.名词短语作宾语
I told him that I should be at home that evening.
He made me happy.
We elect him chairman.
If you had not helped me,I should have died.
Igave him a book.
It is surprising that he should have passed the examination.
It is a pity that he should have done such a stupid thing.
肯定型you must run now→Run!
He said that he would try again.
He said that he will visit the country sometime in july.他说七月份要找时间造访该国。*本句暗示he said 虽是过去时，但he will visit…injuly则表示作者写本句时是七月之前，七月尚未到来，所以用will。*对比下列两段对话：
肯定型you must be quiet now!→Be quiet!（安静!）
否定型Don't be quiet!（別不吭声!）
A:I saw john a few days ago.
第三句型you must open the door now.→Open the door!
B:what did he say?
否定型Don't open the door!
A:He sai that he would call on you yesterday.
B:but he didn't show up yesterday.
You should make him do it.→Make him do it!
否定型Don't make him do it.
A:I saw john a few days ago.
B:what did he say?
肯定型you must send him a letter.→Send him a letter.
A:He said that he will call on you tomorrow.
否定型Don'tsend him any letter.
B:I'll be expecting him then.
Don't try it=Never try it
If I had money now,I would buy a car.(but I don't have money now.)
What a beautiful car he has!
If I had had money,I would have bought a car.(but I didn't have money then)
How hard he studied!
Iwould rather go than stay here.=I would sooner go than stay here.=I would as soon go as stay here.
How great a man he is!=How a great man he is!在how+adj.后只可跟单数名词，不可跟复数或不可数名词。但是how之后可接many,much,little,few之类的数量形容词，再接复数或不可数名词。
2.6.5.aIwould rather＋（that）从句＝I wish+that从句多么希望……该句型属虚拟语气，若与现在事实相反，that从句用一般过去时，若与过去事实相反，则用过去完成时。
How many students there is in the classroom!
I would rather that they were here.=I wish that they were here.
How few friend he has!
2.6.6would you mind+（V-ing/if从句）你介不介意……?
How much money he has made!
Would you mind doing it for me?
How little time is left!
Would you mind if you do it for me?
Would you mind的语气要比Do you mind客气。且would you mind之后的 if从句用一般过去时与助动词would配合，而do you mind之后的if从句用一般现在时与助动词do配合。
2.7.1.can表“能力”=（be able to)译作“能够”。
He can cope with the problem.=He is able to cope with the problem.
2.3.2.特殊疑问句以疑问词（who whom what why which when where how）引导，不可用yes/no回答。形成方法：选定要问的问题对应的疑问词后跟一般疑问句型。
He can be wrong if he says so.
You can go home now.
Can it be true?No,it can't be true.
He is so honest that he can't have stolen your money yesterday.
①must have+p.p.一定曾经……；He looks nervous;he must have stolen your money.
②may have+p.p.可能曾经……。He looks nervous;he may have stolen your money.
Can he have stolen your money?
She could speak English well when she was ten.
Could/would you please do it for me?
2.7.8.could=was/were able to用于一般过去时中，表过去的能力。
When young,he could eat eight bowls of rice at a time.
①I can but do so=I can only do so.我只能这么作。
②I cannot but laugh.=I cannot help but laugh=I cannot help laughing我忍不住大笑。
③we cannot be too careful in choosing friends.我们选朋友时再小心也不为过。
④I couldn'tcare less.我一点都不在乎。
⑤I couldn't sgree more.我同意极了。
You may take whatever you like.
It may be true.
2.8.3.may not有两种意思：①表“可能不会”It's getting late;he may not come.②表“不可以”="must not"
You may not cheat during exams.
He said:"you may go."
He said that I might go.
Ifhe tried hard,he might succeed.(but he doesn't try hard.)
If he had tried hard,he might have succeeded.(but he didn't try hard.)
He knows so many thing that he may well be called genius.
②may as well+原形动词（不妨……）
You may as well stay home.你不妨留在家。
You had better stay home.（你最好呆在家。）
③may as well+原形动词+as+原形动词（与其……倒不如……）
You may as well stay home as go out with them.
注意：may as well…as…（表较大的可能性），而might as well…as…（表可能性较小）
Youmught as well die as make friends with John.不与其和约翰交友倒不如去死算了。（真的去死的可能性很小）
You must finish your work before leaving.
2.9.2.must只用于表现在和将来的状况；have to是全时态的。must not=may not（不可）；don't have to=need not（不必）you don't have to do it.
It must be true.
2.9.4.must have+p.p.表对过去状况的推论，一定曾经……It must have rained last night.
Since he works hard,he ought to succeed.
2.10.2.ough to have+p.p.本应会……（却不如此）表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气，此时if从句中用过去完成时。
If he had worked hard,he ought to have been successful.
2.10.4.ought to have+p.p.也可表“推论至目前为止已经完成的动作”，常与“by now”连用，译作：应当已经……（可能如此）。
He ough to have arrived in New York by now.
He needs to go.
The car needs to be cleaned=the car needs cleaning.
He need not go.（need是助动词）
He doesn't need to go.（need是一般动词）
①didn't need to+原形动词表：当时不必（且也未如此做）
He didn't need to attend the party,so he stayed home.
②need not have+p.p.表：当时不必……（却做了）
He needn't have attended the party,but he went there just the same.（他本不必去，但是去了）
Need he go?=Does he need to go?
①一般动词He needs to go,doesn't he?（needs为一般动词）
He doesn't need to go,does he?
He need not go,need he?
Dare he go?他敢去吗？
He dare not go.他不敢去。
How dare you say such a thing to me?
I wonder whether he dare do it.
He dares to go.
I dared to go.
He dare not answer the phone.=He doesn't dare (to) answer the phone.
He dared me to jump the stream.
I daresay he will be late again.
He used to live here.
There used to be a pond in this garden.→Used there to be a pond in this garden?
He used to work hard.→Did he use to work hard?
①人+be used to(名词/动名词）某人习惯于……在此结构中used是形容词“习惯的”相当于accustomed，之后的to是介词，译作“对于”
He is used to working alone.
He hasn't( been/got)used to city life yet.
②物＋be used to+原形动词（被用来……），在此结构中used是过去分词，to为不定式。
The book can be used to teach us English writting.
③物+be used as…（被当作……来用）
The knife was used as a weapon
He lays a book on the desk.
A book has been laid on the desk.（被动语态）
He lay on the bed a while ago.他刚才躺在床上。
Don't lie to me.
He lied to me.
He came in and sit down.
John was seateated by the window,lookiking out at passersby.=John sat by the window,looking out at passers by.
May I seat you here?可以安排你坐这里吗？（表就座）
He set the table for dinner.
He rose at seven every morning.
The sun rises in the east.
Accidents arise from care lessnes.
Raise your hand,if you have any wuestions.
Many cattle are raised on his farm.
His bitter words aroused my anger.
The picture hangs on the wall.
The picture is hung on the wall.
They hsnged themurder yesterday.
The airplane flew high in the sky.
This is the place from which the river flows.
The bird flew all the way here fromCanada.
例：Take the book to the library,please.
Bring them back here.
Take it with you when you go there.
Bring it with you when you come here.
He refused my suggestion.
He refused to go with me.
He rejected working with Marybecause he thought she was too selfish.
He denied that he ha done it.=He refused to admit that he had done it.
I spend all my income on books=I spend all my income buying books.
It takes (sb.)+时间＋to V.
It costs(sb.)+金钱＋to V.
It takes(one) two hours to go from here toParis.
It cost(me) fifteen dollars to buy the book.
He failed to answer her question.=He failed to reply to her question.
When asked if he would buy a car,John answered that he had no money.=When asked if he would buy acar,aJohn replied that he had no money.约翰被问到是否会买车，他回答没钱。
11.reach,get to,arrive in/at:
注意：①arrive in大地方（指城市、国家、地区等），arrive at小地方（指建筑物，如车站，邮局等）。
By the time I arrived at the station,the train had gone.
Igot/arrived/reched there at 12.
We have to carry out the mission.=we have to carry the mission out.
We have to carry it out.
bring up 抚养 figure out 想出
Call down 斥责 give up 放弃
Call off 取消 put out 熄灭
Cross out 删去 take off 脱掉（衣服等）
Do over 重做 take over 接管
Talk over 商讨 pick up 拾起
Think over 考虑 put off 延期
Think up 设计 put on 穿上（衣服等）
Try on 试穿 （衣服等）try out试验（机器、想法等）
Hand in 交出 turn down拒绝
Look over 检查 turn in 交出
Look up查询（生词、电话号码等）turn off关上
Make out 了解 turn on 打开（开关等）
Pick out 挑选
I callon him yesterday.
Call for 要求 go over复习
Come across=run into=meet…by chance偶遇
Look sfter照顾 look for寻找
Get over=recover from复原
Look into调查 get through 做完
We finally agreed on the contract.=we reached an agreement on the contract.
I agree to his coming here.
I agreed him on this point.
This class consists of 10students.=this class is composted of 10students.=this class is made up of 10 students.
14.5.argue with sb.与某人争论
argue over sth.争论某事
approve of sth.赞同某事
care for喜欢comment on评论
count on=depend on=rely on依赖
Add this number to that number.
He blamed me for the fault.
I congratulated him on his success.
He explained it to me.
He won't excuse me for being rude.
He fell in love with she.
He willget in touch with her when he got to New York.
He has made up his mind to study hard.=he has decided to study hard.
Take charge of=be in charge of负责
Take care of=look after照顾
Have coplete access to有完全使用权
Students have complete access to books in the libary.学生们可以任意使用图书馆的书。
I look forward to seeing you soon.我期盼很快能见到你。
I prefer going to the movies to watching TV.我喜欢看电影胜过看电视。
17.2.prefer to+原形动词+（instead of+动名词）/rather than +原形动词
I prefer to go to the movies instead of watching TV.=I prefer to go to the movied rather than watch TV.
Would you mind if I opened the door?=would you mind my opening the door?
Admit 承认 mention 提到
Avoid 避免 pardon 原谅
Appreciate 感激 miss 想念
Consider 考虑 practise＝practice练习
Delay 延期 quit 停止
Mind 介意 risk冒险
Deny 否认 postpone 推迟
Detest 憎恨 resent 愤恨
Enjoy 喜欢 regret 后悔
Escape逃避 keep 保持
Excuse 原谅 forgive 原谅
Finish 结束 imagine 想象
20.prevent sb. from V-ing阻止某人从事……
The heavy rain prevented me getting to work on time.
特：forbid也表禁止不同的是不与from连用，而是forbid sb.to +V.
I forbid him to smoke here.
Discourage sb. from V-ing使某人不敢从事……。
22.persuade sb. to aV劝某人去……
Persuade sb.from V-ing劝阻某人……
You resemble your brother.=you bear a close resemblance to your brother.=you look like your brother.
I've decided to take a trip to Tokyo this summer.
I have ddecided on him as representative of our company.
We decided against John'sidea,thinking that it was not feasible.
②过去分词determined作形容词用，表“下定决心的”be determined to V决心要……。
I'm determined to go on with the project even if I may run into many set backs.（即便可能会遇到许多挫折，我决心继续该项目）
Ican afford the car.=i can afford to buy the car.
Wait one's turn等候某人的机会
I'mwaiting my turn to take revenge.
Await sth=wait for sth
He succeeded inbusiness after years of hard work.
How many of you have succeed in passing the test?
He succeeded his father as president of this company.
He fail to pass the test.
The teacher failed one-third students.
You are the only person i trust don'tfail me.
I depend on him to give me sdvice.
He looks happy.
He looks like a happy man.
30.意图动词的用法：表“设法”、“企图”的接不定式try to do/attempt to do/manage to do/endeavor to do。
I'll endeavor to save our company from going bankrupt.
Be sngry with+人 生某人的气
Be Angry at+物 气某物
He angered me=I was angered by him.=I was angry with him.
①主语+授予动词+间接宾语（人）+直接宾语（物）I asked him a question.
I asked a question of him.
*b*make /do/ leave/ buy用介词for;
Iplayed a joke on him.
③被动语态:人+be+授予动词过去分词＋宾语he was given a book(by me)
Isaw him cry.
I saw him crying.
33.2.听：listen to /hear
Iheard him talk.
I heard him talking.
Ifelt him leave.
Ifelt him leaving.
I'll remember to see him.
II remember seeing him before.
Iforgot to see him.
Iforgot seeing him before.