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原标题:非谓语动词和助动词,主语和动词

浏览次数:70 时间:2019-09-24

1.带to不定式用法之一:带to不定式有逻辑宾语在前时,to后动词用及物动词;不及物时需跟介词。The work is too hard for me to do. (work做及物动词do的逻辑宾语)

第一章句子的形成:

第一章非谓语动词

I have nothing to say. (nothing做及物动词say的逻辑宾语)

概说1任一句子定由主语(subject.S)和动词(verb.V)形成。

非谓语动词均由动词变化而成,一共有三种:

I have a letter to write. (letter是及物动词write的逻辑宾语) 而以下情况有介词:

2有时主语可以省略,形成祈使句如:Work hard=(you should) work hard.

第一节不定式:

I have a pen to write a letter with. ( 用钢笔写信,所以要有“用”字,故加with。)

3祈使句变否定形式,在动词原形前加Don't.

1.原形不定式:就是原形动词。

The zoo is not a good place for animals to live in。

例:Don't be silly.(别傻了)Don't fool around.(别游手好闲)

1.1.常出现在助动词之后。I can do it.He should finish it.We must obey the law

(“住在动物园里”,zoo是live in的逻辑宾语,故不及物动词live加介词in. )

第一节可作主语的词类包括:名词、代词、动名词、不定式短语、名词短语、名词性从句、表的距离的地点副词短语等

1.2.原形不定式与知觉动词:表“看”、“听”、“感觉”的知觉动词之后,可接原形动词作宾语补语,表已发生的事实。看:watch,look at,observe听:hear,listen to感觉:feel。

Tom has no friends to talk to. (friends 是talk to的逻辑宾语,to不可少。)

1.名词(n.noun)

I saw him enter the room.

He runs too fast for us to catch up with. (he是catch up with的逻辑宾语,带with。) There are no seats to sit on. (坐在座位上,故sit后要加on。)

The  tulip is purple.

Inever heard him speak English.

2.(a) little / (a) few: 1few,little“几乎没有;少”否定词。few加可数名词复数, little加不可数名词。 There is little water in the bottle, is there? (前否定,后肯定)

2.代词(pron.pronoun)

I felr the house shake.

Tom is so shy that he has few friends。

She uses her charm to manipulate people.

I was watching the swallows fly to and fro.

2a few“一些”肯定词,加可数名词复数; a little“一些;一点”也是肯定词,加不可数名词。 Tom is not an Englishman , but he knows a little English。

3.动名词(verbal noun)

注意:若改为被动语态时,原形不定式要变成to+原形动词。

3另外,在too, very, so等词后用few, little; 在only, just, still等词后用a few, a little. 而quite a few / a little 都译为“很多”,分别相当于many和much。

Wasting your time is stupid.

1.3.原形不定式与“役使动词”:let ,make,have,bid之后要以原形动词作宾补。

(注:有时a little…。。并不是固定短语。如: a little sheep译为“一只小羊”)

4.动词不定式短语(infinitive phrase)

Let me try it.=Allow me to try it.

3.及物动词+副词:put on (穿上) / put off (推迟) / put away (把…整理好) / put up (举起,搭起,挂起,张贴) / put down (放下) / put out(扑灭); break down(损坏,倒塌);

To read   books is the purpose of learning more knowledge.

I had him warsh the car.=I got to warsh the car.除have外,let ,make,bid均可用于被动语态,且要用加to不定式。

turn on(打开) / turn off (关闭) / turn up (调大) / turn down(关小); get back(取回);

用it做形式主语

They bade him do it.=He was bidden to do it.

use up(用光); cut up(切碎) eat up(吃光) sell out(卖完) cheer up(振作)

It makes me calm to listen to light music .

2.置to的不定式to study(通常所说的不定式就是这种)

give away(赠送) / give out(发放) / give up(放弃) / give back(归还); pick up(捡起、拿起)

**固定搭配it  is no use+~ing*

You should help him study the lesson.(原形不定式)

try out(验证) / try on(试穿); ring up/ call up(打电话); clean up / out (打扫干净);

it  is useless+to do

He refused to study the lesson.(置to不定式)

set up(成立); think up(想出;想起); hand in (上交) / hand out(分发;散发);

=it is of no use+to do

3.“to+原形动词”所形成的不定式有三种功用:不定式作名词用可作主语、宾语和表语。

fix up(修理); work out(算出) dress up(打扮); help out(帮人解决);

It  is no use crying over spilt milk.(覆水难收)

3.1不定式作主语:

keep off / keep out(阻止;挡住); take off(脱下) / take away(拿走) / take out(拿出);

5.名词性从句(nominal clauses)三种:

3.1.1不定式作主语时,表一种意愿或未完成的事,且be动词后的表语若为名词,应该是表意愿、目的、企图等名词,常用的此类名词有:plan,purpose,attempt,goal,aim,ambition,dream,ideal,wish,hope,decition,determination,proposal等。

look up(查找) / look over(仔细查看); throw away / off (抛弃) wake up(叫醒); write down(写下); let down(使沮丧); make up(编造、组成); set off(激起、触发)

5.1That从句,任何以主语起首的句子冠以that即成that从句。

3.1.2不定式作主语时,常用形式主语It取代

注:名词做以上短语的宾语,可放在它们中间或后边;而代词做宾语,只放在中间。

5.2whether从句一般疑问句冠以whether且将主语和助动词或be动词位置还原为陈述句顺序,例如:Is she ugly?→Whether she is ugly.或did he come?→Whether he came.

It is my goal to marry her.

4.as……as用法:中间加形容词和副词原级。1和…一样… His room is as big as mine。

5.3疑问词从句由6w,1h(who,what,why,which,when,where,how)引导的特殊疑问句,动词还原到主语之后。

To take a trip around the world has been my dream.

He runs as fast as I do / me / I. You should keep the room as clean as your brother’s。

例:what are you doing?→what you are doing.

3.1.3不定式作主语之结构变化:不定式作主语时,若短语中最后一个词为宾语,该宾语可移至句首作主语。例如:To please my father is difficult.→My father is difficult to please.

2as…as possible / sb can “尽可能…” We went there as soon as possible。

When did he come?→when he came.

3.2.不定式作宾语:

—7—

Where did she see him?→where she saw him.

3.2.1不定式不能作介词的宾语,只能作及物动词的宾语,该及物动词均为表意愿、企图的动词。常用的有:want,wish,hope,desire,intend,try,determine,decide,attempt,expect,like,love,endeavor等

Listen to the teacher as carefully as you can. He went there as quickly as he could。

Who are you?→who you are.

He intended to visit Paris.

3有些短语有几个意思:as soon as 和…一样快;一…就…; as much as和…一样多;多达; as long as和…一样长;长达;只要; as well as和…一样好;和…一样;

Why did he write the article?→why he wrote the article.

3.2.2作不完全及物动词的宾语时,用it作形式宾语后接补语再接真正的宾语不定式如make it a rule +to V.。

as far as远达;就…来说 (as…as…在否定句中也可说so…as…。)

Which did they choose?which they chose.

3.3.不定式作表语:

也可表示倍数: This room is twice as big as that one. 这个房间是那个房间的两倍大。

Which was bought?→which was bought.

3.3.1.不定式作表语此时,主语均为表意愿、企图的名词。my plan is to see her.

5.prefer用法:prefer sth to sth 或 prefer doing sth to doing sth。“比起…更喜欢…”

How can we get more money?→how we can get more money.

3.3.2.下列句型中be动词后的to可省略:All you have to do is(to)take a good rest.All I can do (is) wait.What you should do is simply (to)appologize to him.All I did yesterday was (to)eat and sleep.

prefer to do sth rather than do sth宁愿…也不愿…

5.4名词性从句的功用:名词性从句是由陈述句和疑问句变化而成和动名词或不定式短语一样,也可被视为名词,故可作主语、宾语或中be动词之后做表语。

4.不定式作形容词修饰名词用:

若单独一个prefer,和like 用法类似,后接 to do sth 或 doing sth “更喜欢做某事”

5.4.1名词性从句作主语That honesty is the best policy (名词性从句主语)is a  proverb(which)we should always keep in mind(定语从句)。

4.1此类不定式一律采用后位修饰,修饰前面的名词。

  1. some-, any-, every-用法:1some-“某~,一些~”,用于肯定的陈述句中。

上句主语太长可变形为It is a proverb(which) we should always keep in mind that honesty is the best pilicy.

4.2.所修饰的名词要作不定式短语中动词的主语或宾语不然就是短语中介词的宾语,若是be动词就作表语。I have somthing to do.(修饰代词something)there is one thing to be done.

I have something to tell you. Maybe somebody has taken it。

5.4.2名词性从句作及物动词(transitive verb vt.)宾语(object)

I have no friend to advise me.(作advise的主语)

若用于疑问句中表示期待对方肯定的回答或表示请求或建议。

例:I know that he will go aboard in the near future.

I want something to eat.(作宾语eat)

Why not ask somebody to help you? Shall we give him something to eat?

They didn't care how i would deal with the tact.

I have no one to talk to(作介词to的宾语)

What about some milk? Could you please lend me some chairs?

He wonders whether she has completed the object.

5.Be动词后接形容词不定式:主动形式表将来(=will)或表义务(=should);被动形式表当然(=should)或可能(=can)

Will you buy me some books? May I give you some tea? Would you like some milk?

5.4.3名词性从句作介词(preposition prep. )宾语(object)

He is to come tomorrow.=He is going to come tomorrow.

在一些”do some…”短语中, 即使是疑问句中, some也不变为any. 如:

5.4.3.1不能接that从句,只可用whether从句和疑问词引导的名词性从句。

You are to do it=you should do it.

Will you do some washing next Sunday? 这些短语有:

I am worried about whether he can catch the train in time.

Such a lazy man is to be fired=Such a lazy man should be fired.

do some shopping / cleaning / cooking / sweeping / washing 等。

He remains curious about why she neglects him.

My hat was nowhere tobe found.=My hat could not be found anywhere.

2any-, 在疑问句中仍译为“某~,一些~”Do you have anything to say?

I wonder about  what happened.

6.不定式和虚拟语气:

Is anybody in the house? Have you seen it anywhere?

Don't break in when he is  telling the story.

6.1意愿动词加不定式与虚拟语气:

在if 引导的句中,常用any. 如:If you have any water, please give me some。

5.4.3.2the fact that遇介词后,非得用that从句时,在介词后加the fact作介宾,接that从句作the fact的同位语。

表意愿的动词如:expect,hope,intend,want等,①用一般过去时,再接to have+p.p.形成表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,等于would have+p.p.本来想……IWould have done it.but I was busy.=I intended to have done it,but I was busy.=I had intended to do it,but I was busy.②如上例,也可以把这些表意愿的动词改为过去完成时再接不定式,同样表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,句型为expected to have p.p.=had expected to+原形动词。

在肯定句和否定句中译为“任何~” You may put the box anywhere in the room。

I'm sure of the fact that he went out in the second round  of the tounament.

6.2.was/were to have+p.p.=should have+p.p.(本应该……)本结构也可表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气。

He is taller than any other student in the class. We won’t have anything to eat now。

5.4.3.3习惯用语*in thatexcept that及**notwithstanding that***

They were to have started outearly,but it was raining heavily.=They should have started out early,but it was raining heavily.

3every-“每~”,强调所有,既包括此也包括彼。

He is talented in that he can speak eight different languages.=He is talented  because he can speak eight different languages.

7.不定式的省略:不定式短语中的动词若在前面的句中已经出现过,为避免重复,可以省略但保留to。You may go if you want to (go).

Is everybody here?-No,Tom and Lucy have asked for leave。

He is nice except that sometimes he lies

8.不定式有时也可形成感叹句,例如:

The glass was broken, and the water went everywhere。

Notwithstanding that she is nice,I don't like her.=Despite the fact that she is nice,I don't like her.=In spite of the fact that she is nice,I don't like her.

To think that such a lazy boy should have passed the exam!

7.动词时态和形式:八个时态:一般现在时、 现在进行时(am / is / are + v.ing)、

5.5名词短语作主语由疑问词+不定式短语形成

9.help的用法:

一般将来时(will / shall / be going to+动词原形)、 一般过去时、 过去进行时(was / were + v.ing)、 现在完成时(have / has + v. 过去分词)、 过去完成时(had + v. 过去分词)、过去将来时(would + v. 原形) 六个形式: 原形; 过去式(规则的加ed);

5.5.1疑问副词where,when,how,whether

9.1.help+宾语+(to)+原形动词

过去分词(规则的加ed); 第三人称单数(加s / es); 现在分词(v.ing); 带to不定式。

When to meet  them is the question which we have to consider=when we should meet them is the question  we have to consider.

He help ed me(to) do the work.

8.if / whether区别:if 如果(引导条件状语从句) / 是否(引导宾语从句)

Where to redeem the coupon was appointed=where we should redeem the coupon was appointed.

9.2.help+宾语+with+名词

—8—

Whether to divorce  annoys me=whether we should divorce annoys me.

He helped me with the work.

Do you know if he will go to the post office? If he goes there, I will ask him to buy me some stamps. 两个if, 前者“是否”;后者“如果”,观察其后时态的不同。(各见语法1、2)

How to increase our profit is the point of the conference.

9.3.help(to)+原形动词

whether“无论”引导让步状语从句 / “是否”引导宾语从句(相当于if)

5.5.2疑问代词what whom

He helped(to)do the work

都译为“是否”时,whether可接or not, 也可接带to不定式。而if 则不可。

What to do was wroten in the brochure.=what we should do was wroten in the brochure.

9.4.help with+名词

另外,if可接any-单词,常不接some-单词。 (见语法28.)

Whom to see is  a mystery.=whom we should see is a mystery.

He helped with the work.

9.因为:because, 常是对why的回答,语气最强。位置:Because…, …或…, because…。

Which to annul is apuzzl.=which we should annul is a puzzl.

10.原形不定式的特殊结构

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5.6地点副词短语作主语from+地点名词+to+地点名词与单数be动词连用

10.1.do nothing but+原形动词:

From Beijing to Moscow is about 7000 kilometers.=It is 7000 kilometers from  Moscow to Beijing.

He did nothing but(did) eat all day.(but是并列连词,前面的did是及物动词后面的did强调语气可省略)

第二节 动**词的种类及用法

10.2.choose/expect/want/desire nothing+ to+原形动词。He wanted nothing but (wanted)to sleep.

1.动词分为五大类

10.3.be interested in nothing but+动名词/名词。He is interested in nothing but(is interested in)singing

1.1完全不及物动词(complete intransitive verb 简写c.vi.

10.4.enjoy nothing but+名词/动名词

1.2不完全不及物动词(incomplete intransitive verb简写i.vi.

I enjoy nothing but(enjoy)dancing.

1.3完全及物动词(complete transitive verb简写c.vt.

10.5.can't but+原形动词=can't help+动名词

1.4不完全及物动词(incomplete transitive verb简写i.vt.

此处的help等于stop或resist,表抗拒。

1.5授予动词(dative verb简写d.v.

When I heard the story,I couldn't but laugh=When I heard the story,I couldn't help laughing.=When I heard the story,I couldn't help but laugh.

2.如何判断是及物动词还是不及物动词

11.不定式作副词用

我_____他(主动);他被我_______(被动)在上列空格中放入一个英语动词,译成中文后意思都没毛病则是及物动词,否则是不及物动词。例如see我看到他;他被我看到.意思没毛病,所以see是及物动词,再如:dance我跳舞他,他被我跳舞所以dance是不及物动词。上列公式中宾语可任意替换以符合文意,如I climbed the wall;The wall was climbed by me.可见climb是及物动词。

3.兼作及物和不及物的动词,有些动词有两个或多个意思,套用上法可判断区别其具体情况的语意

Sing 唱歌vi. 唱(一首歌)vt.

Run 经营(企业)vt. 跑步vi.

Study研究(问题)vt.  学习vi.

Kill杀死(人或物)vt.  杀戮vi.

11.1.副词不定式修饰动词时要置于动词之后

4.不及物动词变及物动词,用同系名词作宾语

I came to see her(作副词修饰动词came)

Dream your dream;live a happy life;smile a bright smile;laugh a hearty laugh;sigh a deep sigh;sleep asound sleep

11.2.副词不定式修饰动词时,多表目的,此时该副词不定式也修饰含该动词的整个句子

5完全不及物动词即意思完全的不及物动词,其单独在主语后,意思就很完全,之后不需要加名词或形容词补充其意思的不足。例如:he laughed.

He rushed all the way here to catch the train.该句中 all the way和here都是副词修饰动词rushed这里副词不定式修饰he rushed all the way here整句。

5.1完全不及物动词出现的形态

注意:表“目的”的副词不定式修饰,通常置于动词之后,但也可移到主语之前,须用逗号相隔。例:he sang asong to please her.=To please her,he sang a song.

主语(S.)+完全不及物动词(c.vi.)

You should work very hard to win the award.=To win the award,you should work very hard.

Something is happening.

11.3.不定式移至主语之前,一方面保持其副词特性,修饰句中动词或整个句子;但也兼有形容词功能修饰句中主语,该主语通常是表人的名词或代词。不定式在主语之前,不定式所表的动作必须是其所修饰的主语造成的动作。修饰动词的表目的之副词不定式可由下列短语取代:he sang a song to please her=He sang a song in order to please her.=he sang a song so as to please her.=he sang a song with an eye to pleasing her.=He sang a song with a view to pleasing her.

He died.

11.4.副词形容词修饰形容词时,要置于形容词之后

5.2.完全不及物动词后可接副词(adverb简写adv.)或副词对等语(如状语从句等),以修饰该动词。

He is able to handle the problem.

He dided in an accident.(地点状语)

He is apt to lie.

She left because she didn't want to hear noise.(原因状语)

The book is good to read.

He study hard.(副词,努力地,hard修饰完全不及物动词,学习,study)

11.5.副词不定式修饰副词时,要置于副词之后

6.不完全不及物动词incomplete intransitive verb即系动词,自身意思不完全,所以无法单独存在,之后需要有名词、形容词或名词对等语(如代词、动名词,不定式,名词性从句名词短语等)作表语(subjective complement 简称s.c.)以补充意思的不足。

He is old enough to go swimming alone

You are a good  student.

12.独立不定式:只用以修饰整个主句,不必考虑主语是人还是物。

My trouble is that  i have no money.

To tell te truth,I don't like him.説真的,

She became happy.

To be frank with you,he is good for nothing.老实说

6.1完全不及物动词的种类(6种)及其表语的用法

To do him justice,he has done his best.平心而论

6.1.1be动词之后可用名词(含名词对等语)或形容词(含作形容词的现在分词、过去分词、介词短语、地点副词或地点副词短语等)作表语。用名词作表语时be译为是;用形容词作表语时be不用译;用地点副词和地点副词短语作表语时be译成在。be之后的11种表语:

To make matters worse,it began to rain.更糟的是,下雨了。

①名词He is a great hero.

He is nice,to be sure.but i don't like him.

②名词性从句The problem is whether he can join us.

He is,so to speak,a rascal.

③名词短语The question is when to set out.

He knows French,not to mention English.

④作名词的动名词短语My hobby is collecting stamps.

13.从句化简为不定式,凡句中主语为形式主语it,之后接单一动词,或及物动词被动语态,再接that引导名词性从句时可将that从句化简为不定式。

⑤作名词的不定式短语My purpose here is to see her.

13.1.单一动词时,例如:It seems that he workes hard.→He seems to work hard.

⑥形容词she is beautiful.

It happened that I was there.→I happened to be there.

⑦作形容词的现在分词The story is interesting.

It is said that he is good.→He is said to be good.类似的还有(reported,rumored,known,thought,believed,等过去分词)

⑧作形容词的过去分词I am interested in the story.

13.2.时态不同时,to之后加have(曾经,已经)+过去分词。例如:It seems that he worked hard.→He seems to have worked hard.

⑨昨形容词的介词短语The book is of great value.

It is said that he was a thug in the past.→He is said to have been a thug in the past.

⑩地点副词They are upstairs.

13.3.Prove可作不完全不及物动词,表“显示”,“结果是”例:What he said proved to be true.(不定式作表语)

11地点副词短语she is in danger.

The report proved to be false.=The report proved false.

They are at home.

14.不定式作补语:具有役使意味的不完全及物动词后加了宾语用不定式作宾补

注意be动词 后面的现在分词有俩种词性,一种是作形容词译作……的,另一种是动词的进行时的现在分词译作正在……;be动词之后的过去分词也有两种词性,一种是形容词译作感到……的,另一种是及物动词的被动语态译作被……

常用的动词有:get,cause,lead,allow,permit,advise persuade,enable,tell,beg,ask,order,want,expect,wish ,intend等。例如:

The man is tired.译作这人感到很累。(形容词作表语)

The sad story caused him to cry.

例:

His speech led me to understand the importance of learning English.

The man was killed.(被动语态)若译作这人感到很杀,则语意不通,所以是被动语态,应译作这人被杀了。

He advise me not to smoke again.

现在分词:be后和主语不能互换He is washing the car.他正在洗车。

His timely help enabled me to finished it early.

动名词:be后和主语可互换位置His job is washing  the car.他的工作是洗车washing the car is his job.洗车是他的工作。

I expect him to do it.

6.1.2become变成(可用任何名词、形容词和可作形容词用的现在分词或过去分词作表语。

I'll get somebody to help you.

例:He became furious.

Wish和help皆可作完全及物动词,以不定式作宾语也可作不及物动词之后接介词for,再接名词。

You will become a prudent student if you study intently.

All we can do now is wish for a miracle.

She is becoming more more charming.

第二节分词:分词有现在分词和过去分词两种

After failing,he became depressed.

2.1.现在分词studying原形动词V.加-ing。

6.1.3turn(变成)通常只用形容词作表语,而且能用的形容词多与颜色和情绪有关。

He is studying.

例:

2.2.过去分词studied一般为原形动词加-ed或不规则动词(需单独记忆)

His face turned pale when he heard the news.

The problem should be carefuly studied.

The leaves are turning yellow.

2.3.动名词studying

His face turned red with shame when heviewed the scene.

He enjoys studying.

注意:turn可用以表示转业,通常与名词连用,形成复合形容词。

3.分词当形容词用

Jack is a soldier-turned  farmer.(军人转业的)。

The student raised a confusing question.

6.1.4.get(变成)通常用表生气或激动的形容词作表语,其它形容词宜用become.

Th teacher was confused.

He got mad.

上例中confusing为现在分词作形容词修饰后面的名词译作“令人困惑的”;confused 为过去分词作形容词,在was后当表语,译作“感到困惑的。”

She became beautiful.

3.1.区分现在分词和过去分词:凡表“令人……的”用现在分词;凡表“感到……的”或“受到……的”时,用过去分词。当表“正在……的”或“即将……的”意思时,用现在分词;表“已经……的”时,用过去分词。

Things have become good.

The retiring teacher walked into the classroom.(将要退的)

注意:

Theretied soldier died last month.(已退的)

①若get用于进行时的结构中,之后可接任何形容词的比较级形态作表语,即:be getting more and more +adjective.

3.2.分词作表语用:

例:

3.2.1系动词(be,remain,become,seem,appear等)后作表语,译作“……的”,分词前可用very修饰。

She is getting more and more beautiful.

The baby is tiring.(宝宝真累人)

Things are getting better and better.

He seems tired.(他似乎累了)

②被动语态get+p.p.(过去分词)=be+p.p.(past participle)

The experience is thrilling(这经历够刺激)

例:

He became more and more interested in learning English.(他对学英语越来越感兴趣)

If you are not careful,you'llget hurt.=If you are  careless,you'll be hurt.

注意:有些分词不能译作“……的”,此类分词只能用于be动词后,不能视作形容词,而应作为动词的进行时或被动语态。

6.1.5.seem=appear(似乎)后接不定式作表语he seems to know it.

He was killed.

在seem to be+名词/形容词,结构中,可省略to be直接用名词/形容词作表语

He was killing the termites.

He seems  to be happy.=He seems happy.

He was writing a letter.

6.1.6五感动词一律译成“……起来”,之后一律用形容词(或可作形容词用的分词)作表语。

The letter was being written.

Look,sound,smell,taste,feel(看,听,闻,尝,感觉)起来+形容词。

3.3.作及物动词后宾语的补语首先区分形成分词的原动词是及物动词还是不及物动词:

例:

3.3.1.及物动词变分词:用现在分词+其宾语,作补语。

His idea sounds funny.

Ifound him killing termites或I found the termites killed.

It looks interesting.

3.3.2不及物动词变分词作宾补,一律用现在分词I keep John waiting.

The soup smells nice.

4.分词可作名词用:可作形容词用的分词之前若有the则可当做单数或复数名词使用。

The cake tastes delicious.

The wounded were rushed to the hospital.=The wounded people were rushed to the hospital.

The stone felt rough.

The unexpected has happen.=something (which) we didn't expect happened.

注意:①感官动词后不可用名词作表语,需要与名词连用时须加介词like,再接名词作介宾。

5.分词可作副词用:

例:It sounds like a good idea.

5.1.少数现在分词有副词very的意味,可修饰其后的形容词。

That material feels like silk.

It's freezing/biting cold today.

That tastes like fish.

The tea is boiling hot.

②feel like+名词,译作:感觉像……;when mary said she would mary me,I felt like a newborn baby.

He was hopping mad on hearing dismissal.

Feel like+动名词,译作:想要……。I  feel like taking a walk.=I would like to take a walk.

We 're having a ripping good time.

③feel,taste,smell也可当完全及物动词,可用名词作宾语,此时应翻译为:feel(摸)taste(尝)smell(闻)+名词。

5.2.过去分词作副词用:

The doctor felt my  forehead and said i had a fever.

An estimated 54people were killed in the air crash.=It is estimated that 54 people were killed in the air crash.

Don't taste that food;it has spoiled.

6.分词结构~动词变化:一句中有两个动词同时存在,一定要有连词相连;若无连词,:

He smelled something burning.

6.1.两个动词同时发生时,则第二个动词一定要变成现在分词,若该动词是be动词,变成being后省略。

④look与介词连用时,形成短语动词,可视作及物动词。

He came home crying.

例:look into=investigate调查;

Hecame home being tired.

Look over=examine检查;

6.2.两个动词表的动作不是同时发生有先后次序时,第二个动词要变成不定式短语。

Look at=watch看;

He came here to see me.

此时就要用副词修饰这些短语动词了。

6.3若两动词以逗号相隔而无连接时,无需考虑先后次序,第二动词一定变成现在分词。

例:He looked into the case carefully.

I left hom at six in the morning,arriving here about four in the afternoon.

副词也常会置于look和介词之间。

He ran away quickly,looking as if something terrible had happened.

例:

7.单句化简法:两句在一起,无连词相连时,往往第一个句子要化简为分词短语:

She looked happily at me.

7.1.两句主语相同时,化简的句子的主语要删除;否则,保留。

He looked carefully into the case.

7.2.动词变成现在分词

7.不完全不及物动词的重要短语

7.3.be动词变成现在分词being后可省略也可留下,以强调“因为……”之意。

Fall ill(fall表变成,ill形容词)

The sun setting,the cowboy rode back to the ranch.

Tom fell ill and couldn't attend school today.汤姆今天病了不能上学了。

Being sick of studying,he ran away from home.

Fall asleep.睡着了

注意:

Provision ran short.粮食不够了。

①否定结构not要置于分词前。

Idon't know how he came to be so popular.

②句中有助动词do,does,did时,可直接删除。

此处came to be相当于gradually became逐渐变成。

③句中有完成时助动词have,has,had时,要变成现在分词having。

The document proved to be a forgery.这文件显现出是个伪造品(此处prove作系动词用后接表语)

④主语不同时,所形成的分词结构,称为分词的独立主格结构,即独立修饰不同的主语的分词结构。

8.完全及物动词就是加了宾语后意思完全的动词,有主动和被动两个语态。在主动语态中句型为:主语(subject)+vt.+宾语(object)

This being the case,you'd better be careful.

9.完全及物动词的宾语:共计有名词、代词、动名词、不定式、名词性从句及名词短语。

All things considered,I decided to major in business administration.其中all things considered原本为all things were bonsidered(所有情况都被考虑过了)be动词were变成being被省略了。

⑤有时也可以把第二个句子变成分词结构。

9.1名词作及物动词宾语

He was reading a book,and his wife was knitting beside him.→He was reading a book,his wife knitting beside him.

Hdidn't buy the bike.

We will go picnicking tomorrow,if weather permits.→we will go picnicking tomorrow,weather permitting.

I9.2代词作及物动词宾语代词要用宾格me them him her。

8.定语从句化简法:在限定性定语从句中,关系代词作主语时,可化简为分词短语。方法是:

I don't like John.In fact,I hate him.

8.1.先去掉关系代词;再将关系代词后的动词变成现在分词being可省略。需要注意的是:只有当非限定性定语从句结构为“关系代词+be+名词”时,可化简为同位语;其它非限定性定语从句不能化简。

9.3.不定式作及物动词宾语

John,who is a good student of mine,studies hard.→John,a good student of mine,stidies hard.Not knowing how to deal with the problem,I consulted him.

这些动词皆含有表示某种愿望,企图的意思。如:want(想要)disire(想要)hope(希望)等

As I entered the room,I found books scattered around.

I want  to go home.

He said goodbye to her,waving his hand.

I  hope to have my own house.

He came into the room (being)barefooted.

I desire to see her again.

9.状语从句化简法:once,while,unless,when,though等连词引导的状语从句,若主语与从句中主语相同时可化简为分词结构。其中once,if,unless引导的状语从句化简为分词短语,多限于“主语+be+形容词/分词”其余几词不受此限。

9.4.动名词作及物动词宾语并非所有的及物动词都可用动名词作宾语。常见的有:

If I'm free,I'll go with you.→If(being)free,I'll go with you.

sshe considered studying aboard.

Once I'm rich,I'll buy a car.→Once rich,I'll buy a car.

I once imagined going on a date with her.

Though I have money,I don't buy a car→Though having money,I don't buy a car.

Ican't fancy getting along with them.

10.表身体组织的名词可变成过去分词当形容词用:

He risked doing it.

The girl has big eyes.→I like the big-eyed girl.

I avoided hearing it again.

She has red hair.→Do you see the red-haired girl over there?

He escaped being killed in the accident.

The one-legged soldier is a hero.

They suggested postponing the convention.

11.少数现在分词可当介词用:including(包括),excluding(除外),considering(考虑),regarding(关于),concerning,(关于)

I recommended being on the lookout for idioms.

12.独立分词短语:有些独立分词短语有副词作用,常置于句首,修饰整个句子。

I enjoy playing a video game.

Generally speaking,men are physically stronger than women.

He resents working overtime.

Strictly speaking,he is not good enough.

She practiced playing the cello.

Judging from his appearance,he seems to be rich.

He stoped smoking.

Frankly speaking,he is not the man I want.

You must quit smoking.most important of all,you should start taking exercise.

Talking of novels,have you read his works?

Resist+V-ing抗拒……I couldn't resist having some more ice cream.我忍不住要再吃些冰激凌。我不能抗拒再吃些冰激凌。

According to John,the fire broken out at ten in the morning.

Refuse toV拒绝……I refuse to do it.我拒绝去做此事

Seeing that you have no time,I will have Peter replace you.

Expect to V=anticipate V-ing期望……

13.与役使动词有关的分词短语:

Stop V-ing=quit V-ing=cease to V=cease V-ing不再……

I started the ball rolling(我给开个头)

He stoped writing after he got maried.

The news set my heart throbbing.(这消息使我心悸不已)

He decided to quit smoking.

I'm sorry to have kept you waiting.

They cease working at exactly5:00p.m.=They cease to woek at exactly 5:00p.m .

I couldn't make myself understood.

Stop to V停下来去……。He stoped to talk to me when he saw me.

He got a new suit made.

特:continue start begin like love hate可用动名词也可用不定式作宾语,意思不变。

You should have it unsaid.

He continued trying his luck at the casino.

I like my eggs half boiled.

They started to build the bridge.

Ihad my watch stolen.

He love listening music.

第三节动名词

9.5.名词性从句作及物动词的宾语that从句,whether从句和疑问词引导的名词性从句。

1.动名词第一功能~作主语

9.5.1.that从句作及物动词宾语时,连词that通常可省略。

Working with him is fun.

They feel(that)it is impossible to win the game.

Seeing is believing.

He think(that)the book is worth reading.

Losing his fortune drove him mad.

9.5.2.whether从句作及物动词宾语时,从句连词whether可用if替代,但whether从句作主语和介宾以及be动词的表语时,不能用if替换。

Not knowing what to do was an embarrassment for him.

I don'tknow whether the typhoon will come=I don't know if the typhoon will come.

1.1.动名词作主语仍有动词的意味,若是及物动词,其后仍需加宾语,宾语即使为复数,动名词短语仍视作单数,之后用单数动词。

I doubt whether the man is competent enough to handle it.=I doubt if the man is competent enough to handle it.

Helping others gives me great pleasure.

10.不完全及物动词此类及物动词加了宾语后意思不完全,需要加上补语(complement)以补全意思之不足。例如:make作“制造”或“做”之意解时,为完全及物动词;若当“使”或“叫”之意解时,则为不完全及物动词。he made mary.意思不完全,需要补全。he made mary happy.他使马丽幸福。形容词happy作为宾语补足语(objective complement),以使句意完全。不完全及物动词的分类及用法归纳如下:

1.2.动名词短语作主语时也可用形式主语it代替,而将该动名词短语移至句尾变成不定式短语。

10.1役使动词

It gives me great leasure to help others.

10.1.1叫……(have,make)+宾语+原形动词(作宾补)。I made him wash  dishes.

要注意的是:只有在it is no use结构中,真正的主语才用动名词。

Ihad Tom report to me.

It's no use crying over spilt milk.

注意:

It's no use reasoning with such a stubborn man.

a)get也可表“叫……”之意,但只能用不定式作宾补。I got him to drive the car.

2.动名词的第二功能~作be动词后的表语:

b)make也可用于被动语态,have和get只能用于主动语态。I made him wash the car→He was made to wash the car.(变被动语态时,原形动词要变成不定式)。

seingis believing.

10.1.2.let让……句型为:

His hobby is jogging.

a)let+宾语+原形动词(作宾补)。I let her try it.

注意:

b)let+宾语+作副词用的介词(in,out,down)

①动名词作表语表一种经历或已知的事,而不定式作表语表一种意愿,是未完成的或未发生的事。

He let me in.

②有时be之后的V-ing可能是动名词也可能是现在分词,由于动名词和主语都有名词性质,故有A is B=B is A,只需将主语和V-ing互换位置,如语意通顺,该V-ing为动名词。

Don't let him out.

3.动名词的第三功能~作宾语:

This performance let me down.这表演让我失望。

He detests gambling.

10.1.3强迫/要求/怂恿/催促……此类动词+宾语+不定式(作宾补)

Some people don't enjoy smoking.

I forced him to recite the text.

I remember seeing him.

Iasked her to type the document.

*3.1.以下及物动词均用动名词作宾语:

I encouraged him to learn more about chess.

Consider,contemplate,imagine,fancy,avoid,risk,escape,deny,admit,stop,quit,suggest,recommend,mind,remember,finish,practice

They compelled me to read the book against my will.

3.2.anticipate V-ing=expect to V期望……

He told me to finish the work by eleven.

I anticipate cooperating with him.=I expect to cooperate with him.

此类动词还有许多如Push/seduce/entice/expect/want等+one+to……此类动词变被动语态时仍用不定式作补语。

3.3.stop+V-ing=quit Ving=cease V-ing=cease toV停止从事……

10.1.4make使……成为,句型为make+one+名词/形容词作补语

He stoped/quited/ceased writing when he saw me.=Heceased to writing when he saw me.

The trip made her happy.

3.4.stop +to V.停下原来的工作而去作……

His teacher made him a excellent scholar.

He stoped to talk to mewhen he saw me.

10.2.知觉动词

3.5.allow,permit,forbid的用法:

See,observe,watch,notic,look at,hear,listen to,feel此类动词可用作完全及物动词,加上宾语后无需再加补语。

He allowed/permitted smoking.

He felt a pain in his back.

He forbade smoking.(动名词作宾语)

I was listening to music.

He forbade me to smoke.(不定式作宾补)

Did you see them?

3.6.remember,forget,regret的用法:

注意:a)此类动词也可作不完全及物动词,另加补语。译作……,……了。

3.6.1表过去已发生的事物时,用动名词

Isaw him dance.我看见他跳舞了。

Remember+动名词(记得曾……)

b)用现在分词作补语表进行状态,译作“……正在……”。

Forget+动名词(忘记曾)

As i push the door open,i felt my legs trembling.

Regret+动名词(后悔曾)

c)用过去分词作补语,表被动语态,译作“……被……了”。

Iforgot mailing that letter.

Isaw him lifted.我看见他被掉起来了。

I regret doung it.

I notice the window closed.我注意到窗户被关上了。

3.6.2.表以后要做或未完成的事时,用不定式:remember to V(记得要……)

10.3.任命动词此类动词多表选举、指派之意,其宾语后直接表职位的名词,通常该名词前省略冠词。常见的有:elect,assign,apoint,

forget to V(忘记要……)

We elect him chairman of the commitee.

regret to V(遗憾要……)

The colonel assigned him platoon commander.

I'll remember to see him tomorrow.

10.4.认定动词此类动词均表“视……为……”之意,用名词或形容词作宾语补语。

I forgot to mail the letter.

10.4.1.与介词连用

I regret to tell you the bad news.

We regardlook uponthink ofseeview him as a genius.

3.7.下列动词用动名词和不定式作宾语时,意思相同:like,dislike,love,hate,begin,start,continue

Imistook the long-haired boy for a girl.

4.动名词的第四功能~作介词宾语:

10.4.2.与to be连用

His illness prevented us from starting our own business.

We considerthinkdeem him to be a genius to be nice.

The book is worth reading.

To be可省略而成

注意:worth,worthy,worthwhile的区别如下:

We considerdeemthink him  a geniusnice.

worth prep.“值得”,作为介词置于be之后,可接动名词或名词作宾语。

注意:

Thcar is worth a fortune.

a)一般介词后只能用名词、代词或动名词作宾语

The issue is worth paying attention to.

Iam sick of his rude attitude.

worthy adj.“值得的”,(与of连用)

I'm sick of associating with him.

The issue is worthy of everyone's attention.

但表“视……为”的动词与as或for连用时,还可直接形容词作补语。

Worthwhile adj.值得的,置于名词前,也可置于It is 后,

I regard his behavior as inappropriate.

That's a worthwhile book to read.

John works hard,so i take it granted that he will be successful.

It is worthwhile to read that book=It pays to read that book.

b)Think,believe,find,deem,consider这五个动词作不完全及物动词时,全都译作“认为……是……”不能直接不定式作宾语,一定要用it作形式宾语,在it后接名词或形容词作补语后,再接不定式(真正的宾语)。

5.动名词与所有格的关系:

Ithink it fun to climb mountains.

5.1.that引导的名词性从句化简为分词短语:①去掉that,②将that从句中主语变成所有格,③将that从句中动词变成动名词。

I find it necessary to do the work.

That he teaches well is something that pleases me.→His teaching well is something that pleases me.

Ibelieve ir worthwhile to study hard.

That they helped John with the work won our great admiration.→Their helping John with the work won our great admiration.

I deem it an honor to give this speech.

5.2.that引导的名词性从句作表认知的及物动词(think believe,find feel)的宾语时,化简为所有格分词结构

但这五个动词也可用作完全及物动词,那时要接that引导的名词性从句,believe,find,think,deem,consider要译作相信,发现,认为。

Ibelieve that he works hard.→I believe his working hard.

I think that it is interesting to climb moubtains.

5.3.并非所有及物动词都可用that引导的名词性从句作宾语,如表喜欢、厌恶、在乎之意的及物动词(like,dislike,mind,enjoy等)要用所有格加动名词

I believe that it is worthwhile to study hard.

I enjoyed John's joining us.

That引导的名词性从句作及物动词宾语可省略that所以有

Would you mind my opening the window?

I think(that) it is interesting to climb mountains.及I think it interesting to climb mountains.两句句型结构不同(前者为完全及物动词,后者为不完全及物动词),但语意完全相同。

I don't like his smoking here.

c)make作不完全及物动词时译作“使……成为……”其不能直接不定式,要加形式宾语it后跟补语再接不定式。

5.4.that从句不能作介词的宾语,要变成所有格加动名词。;但that从句中之主语是物非人时,则不用所有格,而直接将主语作宾语之后接现在分词。

I made it arule to get up early.

In spite of my helping him,he failed.

Working hard made it possible for him to win the honour.

In spite of the sun shining,the air was very cold.

d)find believe think deem consider这五词作不完全及物动词时,也不得直接that引导的名词性从句作宾语,一定要用形式宾语it取代。

6.动名词也可与名词连用形成复合名词:

I find it wonderful that he sings so well.

a Sleeping car

The difficulty of the job made it necessary that he should do it with care.

a dining room

I believe it essential that he should work hard.

a walking stick手杖

e)转变动词此类动词均表“使……变成……”之意,常用的有change和turn两个,通常要与into连用。

a laughing stock笑柄

The expereience turnedchanged him into an excellent  scholar.

a writing pad便签纸

f)其它重要的不完全及物动词:set,paint,cry,strike,render,drive,call,name,leave,keep,want,help

asewing machine缝纫机

I set her free.

a starting poit起点

I painted thwall white.

a visiting card名片

The sight struck him dumb.

drinking water饮用水

The baby cried itself to sleep.

注意:若是动名词+名词时,动名词有“用来……”之意;若是现在分词+名词时,现在分词有“会……”或“正在……”之意。

Their assistance will render success certain.

7.“动名词+宾语”作主语的变化:

The misfortune nearly drove him mad.

Writing letters is a trying job for me.=writing of letters is a tring job for me.

He named thebaby Lucy.

Shooting birds is forbidden here.=shooting of birds is forbidden here.

We called him a liar.

8.有些动名词也可作普通的可数名词用:

Dn't leave the door open.

As an old saying goes"Honesty is the best policy."

You must keep yourteeth clean.

A knocking at the door was heard.

I want the job done bo later than five.

He has a good understanding of the problem.

Help me(to)find my key.

Don't forget to take your belongs (恒用复数)with you.

11授予动词(dative verb)为及物动词的一种,只是接两个宾语。第一个宾语叫间接宾语(indirect object简写i.o.)表授予的对象;第二个叫直接宾语(direct object简写d.o.)表授予的东西。

9.常用动名词惯用语:

例:

9.1there is no V-ing=It is impossible to V 不可能……

I will give you the watch.

9.2.It is no use V-ing(……是无用的)

Please lend me your book.

It is no use trying to escape.=It is of no use to try to escape.

I bought him a iphone.

9.3.cannot help/resist/refrain from V-ing忍不住……。

Iasked him a question.

9.4.on V-ing(一……就……)

上述结构中,you,me,him均为间接宾语。

On hearing it,he cried.

12.直接宾语和间接宾语倒置原则

第二章助动词及易用错误的动词

12.1有给予的概念的用to

第一节助动词

I gave th book to him.

1.顾名思义,助动词就是一种帮助动词的词类,helping verb或auxiliary,置于动词前面使动词表现出时态,语态,否定句或疑问句等变化。

I send the letter to him.

2.助动词的种类:be(am,is,are,was,were)have(hws,had)do(does,did)shall(should)will(would)can(could)may(might)must need ought to ,dare,used to

I told the details to him.

2.1.be动词

I taught English to them.

2.1.1.be动词原为不完全不及物动词,译作“是”此时要用形容词或名词作表语。

12.2.表“代劳”概念的用for

He is handsome.

I made a desk for him.

They are good students.

12.3.表“从……中”概念的,用of

2.1.2be后可接现在分词或过去分词表进行时或被动语态,这时be是助动词。

I asked a question of him.凡表“要求”的动词皆如此。

He is reading a book.他正在念书(进行时)

Ididn't expect much of him.

He was elected chairman.他当选主席(被动语态)

She required nothing of me.

2.2.have(has/had)+p.p.已经……

He demanded little of me.

He has written the letter.

注意:expect,require,demand不得像ask一样将间接宾语置于直接宾语之前。

I had finished the task before he came.

13.与of连用的授予动词不同的是此处of之后是表东西的名词为宾语,而不是表对象的宾语。

2.3.do(does,did)do you see that?

13.1.rob抢夺

Ididn't know what to do.

He robbed me of my money.

注意:①否定句若用not表否定,须与助动词do(does,did)连用形成否定句;

13.2.deprive剥夺(权利)

若动词前置not以外的否定副词则不须与助动词do(did,does)连用。常见的否定副词有:never,seldom,rarely,hardly,scarcely,

The court deprived him  of all his civil  right.

②疑问句:dDid you understand it?

13.3.relieve解除(职务、指挥权等)

③强势语气:即在肯定句的动词前按时态、人称置入do(does,did)并将动词改为原形,此时do(di,does)译作“的确”。

The captain relieved the platoon leader of his command.

He worked hard.→He did work hard.

13.4.rid解除、摆脱

④否定倒装句

I  can not rid myself of the painful memory.=Ican not get rid of  the painful memory

Never did I know that he was so stupid.

I'll get rid of those chores(表动作)要摆脱

⑤pro-verb代动词:此种助动词代替句中已经出现过的动词及其后的其它词类。

I'm glad to be rid of those chores.(表状态)已摆脱。

Did you read this book?Yes,I did(=read this book)

13.5.break戒除

I work as hard as he does(=works)

Youshould breakrid yourself of the bad habit of smoking.

2.4.shall,will

13.6.cure治愈

2.4.1.表“将要”,之后接原形动词

The doctor cured him of  his disease=the doctor cured his disease.

2.4.2.传统上I和you须用shall,we之后二者均可,现在多用will取代shall表单纯的一般将来时;但在下列结构中仍用shall取代will

14表提供的授予动词

①征求对方意见时:

有Provid apply offer furnish present等。除offer以外,其余的词要与介词我with 连用

Shall I…?要不要我……?

He offered me all  i needed=He provided me with all i needed.=he supplied me with all i needed=He furnished me with all i needed.=He offered all i needed to me=He provided all i needed for me.

Shall I open the door?

Offer也有表“愿意、主动提议”时,接不定式作宾语。He heard my situation,he offered to help me.

②请求对方合作时:Shall we…?我们……好吗?

Present赠予的用法与provide相似,不同的是间接宾语在句尾时要用介词to相连。

Shall we go for a walk?

He present a watch to me.

③命令对方时:You shall….=you must.你必须……。You shall obey the law.

Explain,introduce,propose,recommend,express这些动词都将间接宾语置于句尾,并用to连接。

在条约中尤其爱出现此类用法:

He explained the reason to me.

例:Article One:You(或one)shall wash your(或one's)hands after using the toilet.

He introduced th girl to me.

④向对方保证某种承诺时:You shall…你一定会……。

He recommended th method to me.

You shall have the present.

He proposed a motion to the commitee.

2.5.should主要表一种义务,译作“应当”,此时等于ought to.

特:I took apicture of him.照片中有他用of;

One should be kind to others.

I took apicture for him.目的是为了给他,照片中不一定有他。

2.5.1在下列结构中习惯上也用should,有其不同的意思。

第三节总结

①It is (natural/proper/right/advisable/desirable/no wonder) that…should…译作“……会……”乃自然的/适当的/正当的/恰当的/较好的/无疑的

1.陈述句五大句型从动词的五种分类(c.vi.;i.vi. ;c.vt.;i.vt.d.v.)演绎成五大句型:

It is natural that he (should )get angry.(他会生气是自然的。)

第一句型:主语+完全不及物动词:

②It is (necessary/imperative/essential/important/urgent) that…should…译作(……应当……是有必要的)本结构中should常可省略保留其后的原形动词。

He fained.

It is important that he(should)finish the job before leaving.

He slept.

It is imperative that he do the work now.(他现在应该赶紧作这事。)

主语+完全不及物动词+副词

③It is (surprising/amazing)that…should(居然)…译作令人惊讶的是……居然……。

He went away.

It is surprising that he should be so kind.(令人惊讶的是他居然这么和气。)

He went to the station(介词短语作副词用)

④It is (a pity/a regret/regrettable)that …should…译作令人遗憾的是……居然……。

第二句型:主语+不完全不及物动词+表语

It is a pity that he should be so rude.真遗憾他居然这么粗鲁。

He looks happy.

2.5.2.意志动词如表“建议”(propose,recommend,suggest),要求(ask,demand,desire,require,request,insist),命令(order,command),规定(rule,regulate)等,之后若有that从句作宾语时从句也使用should,并且should 可省略。

第三句型:主语+完全及物动词+宾语

He suggested that we (should)leave at once.

He ate it.

2.5.3.est表“以免”,为副词连词,所引导的从句也使用should,且should可省略。

He wants to do it.(不定式作意愿动词的宾语)

He came early lest he (should) be late.=He came early for fear that he might be late.

He knows( that) she is wrong.(that名词性从句作宾语)

2.5.4..if从句若表与将来情况相反时,应用should,表“万一”之意。

I wonder whether he'll come.(whether名词性从句作宾语)

If you should be late again,you will spoil the plan.

They  enjoy dancing.(动名词作宾语)

2.5.5.在一般过去时中,要用should代替shall。

I don't know how to do it.名词短语作宾语

I told him that I should be at home that evening.

第四句型:主语+不完全及物动词+宾语+宾补

2.5.6.should+have+p.p.

He made me happy.

2.5.6.1.表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,译作“早应该……”

We elect him chairman.

If you had not helped me,I should have died.

第五句型:主语+授予动词+间接宾语+直接宾语

2.5.6.2.表“居然已经”,常出现在下列结构中:

Igave him a book.

It is surprising that he should have passed the examination.

2.祈使句、感叹句、问句:

It is a pity that he should have done such a stupid thing.

2.1祈使句就是把主语you和助动词should或must省略的句子。此类句型以动词原形开头,可视语气强弱用感叹号。

2.6.would

第一句型:

2.6.1.would是will的过去式,表过去将来时。

肯定型you must run now→Run!

He said that he would try again.

否定型don't run!

注意新闻英语中,常出现will与一般过去时动词连用的现象。例如:

第二句型:

He said that he will visit the country sometime in july.他说七月份要找时间造访该国。*本句暗示he said 虽是过去时,但he will visit…injuly则表示作者写本句时是七月之前,七月尚未到来,所以用will。*对比下列两段对话:

肯定型you must be quiet now!→Be quiet!(安静!)

对话一

否定型Don't be quiet!(別不吭声!)

A:I saw john a few days ago.

第三句型you must open the door now.→Open the door!

B:what did he say?

否定型Don't open the door!

A:He sai that he would call on you yesterday.

第四句型:

B:but he didn't show up yesterday.

You should make him do it.→Make him do it!

对话二

否定型Don't make him do it.

A:I saw john a few days ago.

第五句型

B:what did he say?

肯定型you must send him a letter.→Send him a letter.

A:He said that he will call on you tomorrow.

否定型Don'tsend him any letter.

B:I'll be expecting him then.

Don't try it=Never try it

2.6.2.would+原形动词,表与现在事实相反的虚拟语气,(如果……)就会……

2.2.感叹句均由how或what引导句型如下

If I had money now,I would buy a car.(but I don't have money now.)

2.2.1what+n.+主语+动词……!

2.6.3would+have+p.p.表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气

What a beautiful car he has!

If I had had money,I would have bought a car.(but I didn't have money then)

2.2.2.how+adj.或adv.+主语+动词……!

2.6.4.would rather+原形动词(宁愿……)

How  hard he studied!

Iwould rather go than stay here.=I would sooner go than stay here.=I would as soon go as stay here.

How great a man he is!=How a great man he is!在how+adj.后只可跟单数名词,不可跟复数或不可数名词。但是how之后可接many,much,little,few之类的数量形容词,再接复数或不可数名词。

2.6.5.aIwould rather+(that)从句=I wish+that从句多么希望……该句型属虚拟语气,若与现在事实相反,that从句用一般过去时,若与过去事实相反,则用过去完成时。

How many students there is in the classroom!

I would rather that they were here.=I wish that they were here.

How few friend he has!

2.6.6would you mind+(V-ing/if从句)你介不介意……?

How much money he has made!

Would you mind doing it for me?

How little time is left!

Would you mind if you do it for me?

2.3疑问句分为一般疑问句和特殊疑问句。

Would you mind的语气要比Do you mind客气。且would you mind之后的 if从句用一般过去时与助动词would配合,而do you mind之后的if从句用一般现在时与助动词do配合。

2.3.1.一般疑问句皆可用yes/no回答,由陈述句变化而成,方法如下:

2.7.can和could:

a)有be动词的将be动词置于主语之前,句尾加?号即成。

2.7.1.can表“能力”=(be able to)译作“能够”。

AAb)句中有助动词如:can,could,may,might,will,would,shall,should,musthave(has had)等,将该助动词置于主语前。

He can cope with the problem.=He is able to cope with the problem.

c)句中若无助动词或be动词,仅有一般动词,先按照时态和主语人称之不同,这在句首加do does或did并将主语之后的动词一律改为原形动词。

2.7.2.表“可能性”,译作“有可能”。

2.3.2.特殊疑问句以疑问词(who whom what why which when where how)引导,不可用yes/no回答。形成方法:选定要问的问题对应的疑问词后跟一般疑问句型。

He can be wrong if he says so.

2.7.3.表“许可”,=may,译作“可以”。

You can go home now.

2.7.4.在疑问句或否定句中,表“可能性”,译作“有可能”或“不可能”。

Can it be true?No,it can't be true.

2.7.5.表对过去事物的否定推论:

Can't have+p.p.译作“不可能曾……”

He is so honest that he can't have stolen your money yesterday.

注意:can仅用以表过去事物的否定推论;表对过去事物的肯定推论有以下两句型:

①must have+p.p.一定曾经……;He looks nervous;he must have stolen your money.

②may have+p.p.可能曾经……。He looks nervous;he may have stolen your money.

疑问句中表对过去事物的推论要用Can+S.+have+p.p.译作“有可能……吗?”

Can he have stolen your money?

2.7.6.could为can的过去式,通常与另一个一般过去时动词连用,以表过去的状况。

She could speak English well when she was ten.

2.7.7如同would一样,could也可使用在问句中,以表客气的语气。

Could/would you please do it for me?

2.7.8.could=was/were able to用于一般过去时中,表过去的能力。

When young,he could eat eight bowls of rice at a time.

2.7.9.can与not连用时,要写作can't或cannot,而不是can not。

但是could not或couldn't而非couldnot。

2.7.10.can的习惯用语:

①I can but do so=I can only do so.我只能这么作。

②I cannot but laugh.=I cannot help but laugh=I cannot help laughing我忍不住大笑。

③we cannot be too careful in choosing friends.我们选朋友时再小心也不为过。

④I couldn'tcare less.我一点都不在乎。

⑤I couldn't sgree more.我同意极了。

2.8may,might:

2.8.1.may表“许可”,译作“可以”

You may take whatever you like.

2.8.2.may表“推测”,译作“可能”,此时等于can。

It may be true.

2.8.3.may not有两种意思:①表“可能不会”It's getting late;he may not come.②表“不可以”="must not"

You may not cheat during exams.

2.8.4.might与另一个一般过去时动词连用,以表过去状况。

He said:"you may go."

He said that I might go.

2.8.5.might+原形动词(也许会……)

Might+have+p.p.(当时也许会……)

用于虚拟语气,分别表与现在及过去事实相反。

2.8.5.1与现在事实相反,if从句中使用一般过去时。

Ifhe tried hard,he might succeed.(but he doesn't try hard.)

2.8.5.2.与过去事实相反,if从句中动词使用过去完成时。

If he had tried hard,he might have succeeded.(but he didn't try hard.)

2.8.6may的习惯用语:

①May well+原形动词(大可/足可以……)

He knows so many thing that he may well be called genius.

②may as well+原形动词(不妨……)

You may as well stay home.你不妨留在家。

You had better stay home.(你最好呆在家。)

③may as well+原形动词+as+原形动词(与其……倒不如……)

=had better+原形动词+than+原形动词

You may as well stay home as go out with them.

注意:may as well…as…(表较大的可能性),而might as well…as…(表可能性较小)

Youmught as well die as make friends with John.不与其和约翰交友倒不如去死算了。(真的去死的可能性很小)

2.9must

2.9.1.表“义务”,译作“必须”。是一种义务上强制的必须;而have to表一种勉强的意味,译作“不得不……”,“有必要……”

You must finish your work before leaving.

2.9.2.must只用于表现在和将来的状况;have to是全时态的。must not=may not(不可);don't have to=need not(不必)you don't have to do it.

2.9.3must表对现在状况的推论,一定……

It must be true.

2.9.4.must have+p.p.表对过去状况的推论,一定曾经……It must have rained last night.

2.10.ough to表“义务”,译作“应当”等于should。

2.10.1ought to也可表“推论”,译作“应当会”

Since he works hard,he ought to succeed.

2.10.2.ough to have+p.p.本应会……(却不如此)表与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,此时if从句中用过去完成时。

If he had worked hard,he ought to have been successful.

2.10.4.ought to have+p.p.也可表“推论至目前为止已经完成的动作”,常与“by now”连用,译作:应当已经……(可能如此)。

He ough to have arrived in New York by now.

2.11.need:

2.11.1.在肯定句中need为一般动词,同样有人称和时态变化,之后接不定式或名词作宾语。

He needs to go.

The car needs to be cleaned=the car needs cleaning.

2.11.2.否定句中need与not连用,此时为助动词

He need not go.(need是助动词)

He doesn't need to go.(need是一般动词)

2.11.3.表过去状况时:

①didn't need to+原形动词表:当时不必(且也未如此做)

He didn't need to attend the party,so he stayed home.

②need not have+p.p.表:当时不必……(却做了)

He needn't have attended the party,but he went there just the same.(他本不必去,但是去了)

2.11.4.在疑问句中need作助动词和一般动词均可。

Need he go?=Does he need to go?

2.11.5.need在反意疑问句中的变化:

①一般动词He needs to go,doesn't he?(needs为一般动词)

He doesn't need to go,does he?

②助动词:

He need not go,need he?

2.12.dare可作助动词用于疑问句或否定句中。

Dare he go?他敢去吗?

He dare not go.他不敢去。

2.12.2.How dare+一般陈述句。……怎敢……?

How dare you say such a thing to me?

2.12.3.在whether从句中dare可作助动词,

I wonder whether he dare do it.

2.12.4.在肯定句中dare是一般动词,随时态和人称变化,之后接不定式。

He dares to go.

I dared to go.

2.12.5.dare not+原形动词不敢……。

He dare not answer the phone.=He doesn't dare (to) answer the phone.

2.12.6.dare也可作及物动词,表“向某人挑战”之意。

He dared me to jump the stream.

2.12.7.I daresay+that从句:我敢说……

I daresay he will be late again.

2.13.used to:

2.13.1.used to视为助动词,之后接原形动词,表过去曾经……

He used to live here.

2.13.2.ysed to在疑问句中的用法:

There used to be a pond in this garden.→Used there to be a pond in this garden?

注意当主语为人时,

He used to work hard.→Did he use to work hard?

2.13.3.在下列结构中used to非助动词而是一般动词use的过去分词:

①人+be used to(名词/动名词)某人习惯于……在此结构中used是形容词“习惯的”相当于accustomed,之后的to是介词,译作“对于”

He is used to working alone.

He hasn't( been/got)used to city life yet.

②物+be used to+原形动词(被用来……),在此结构中used是过去分词,to为不定式。

The book can be used to teach us English writting.

③物+be used as…(被当作……来用)

The knife was used as a weapon

第二节易用错的动词

1.lay:vt.放置;生产(其后加宾语),动词变化:lay,laid,laid,laying可用被动语态be laid。

He lays a book on the desk.

A book has been laid on the desk.(被动语态)

1.1lie:vi.躺(不加宾语)词型变化为:lie,lay,lain,laying。不及物动词无被动语态,

He lay on the bed a while ago.他刚才躺在床上。

1.2.lie.vi.说谎(不加宾语)词型变化:lie,lied,lied,lying

Don't lie to me.

He lied to me.

2.sit,set,seat:

2.1sit vi.坐(不加宾语)词型变化为:sit,sat,sitting

He came in and sit down.

2.2.seat vt.使就坐(其后加宾语)及物动词,若无宾语时,用被动语态,词性变化:seat,seated,seated,seating。

John was seateated by the window,lookiking out at passersby.=John sat by the window,looking out at passers by.

May I seat you here?可以安排你坐这里吗?(表就座)

2.3.set vt.安置表“摆设”set,set,set,setting

He set the table for dinner.

3.raise,rise,arouse:

rise vi.起床,升起(其后不加宾语)

词型变化:rise,rose,risen,rising.

raise vt.举起,饲养

词型变化:raise,raised,raised,raising

arise vi.起因于(与from连用)

词型变化:arise,arose,arisen,arising。

arouse vt.激起

词型变化:arouse,aroused,aroused,arousing。

He rose at seven every morning.

The sun rises in the east.

Accidents arise from care lessnes.

Raise your hand,if you have any wuestions.

Many cattle are raised on his farm.

His bitter words aroused my anger.

4.hang:

①hang:挂 vi.&vt.词型变化hang,hung,hung,hanging。

②hang:吊死vt.词型变化hang,hanged,hanged,hanging。

The picture hangs on the wall.

The picture is hung on the wall.

They hsnged themurder yesterday.

5.fly,flow:

Fly: vi.飞,词型变化fly,flew,flown,flying。

The airplane flew high in the sky.

Flow:vi.流,词型变化flow,flowed,flowed,flowing。

This is the place from which the river flows.

The bird flew all the way here fromCanada.

6.take,bring:

Take(从此出处)拿走词型变化take,took,taken,taking

Bring(从别处)拿来词型变化bring,brought,brought,bringing

例:Take the book to the library,please.

Bring them back here.

Take it with you when you go there.

Bring it with you when you come here.

7.refuse:拒绝v.接名词,代词不定式作宾语,不能接动名词。

①refuse+名词

He refused my suggestion.

②refuse to+原形动词

He refused to go with me.

注意reject(排斥)与refuse相近,却接动名词作宾语。

He rejected working with Marybecause he thought she was too selfish.

Refuse不能接that从句。

He denied that he ha done it.=He refused to admit that he had done it.

8.spend:

人+spend+时间(或金钱)+动名词/on+名词。

I spend all my income on books=I spend all my income buying books.

9.take,cost:

It takes (sb.)+时间+to V.

It costs(sb.)+金钱+to V.

It takes(one) two hours to go from here toParis.

It cost(me) fifteen dollars to buy the book.

10.answer,reply to:

He failed to answer her question.=He failed to reply to her question.

注意:answer可接that从句作宾语,而reply to不能接that从句作宾语,须删除介词to才能接that从句。

When asked if he would buy a car,John answered that he had no money.=When asked if he would buy acar,aJohn replied that he had no money.约翰被问到是否会买车,他回答没钱。

11.reach,get to,arrive in/at:

reach+宾语(到达……)=arrive in/at(到达大地方/小地方)

等于get to+宾语

注意:①arrive in大地方(指城市、国家、地区等),arrive at小地方(指建筑物,如车站,邮局等)。

By the time I arrived at the station,the train had gone.

②与here.there,home等副词连用时,一律不加介词。

Igot/arrived/reched there at 12.

12.动词+介副词+宾语=动词+宾语+介副词

We have to carry out the mission.=we have to carry the mission out.

注意:代词只能在动词和介副词中间。

We have to carry it out.

****此类结构的短语如下:

bring up 抚养 figure out 想出

Call down 斥责 give up 放弃

Call off 取消 put out 熄灭

Cross out 删去 take off 脱掉(衣服等)

Do over 重做 take over 接管

Talk over 商讨 pick up 拾起

Think over 考虑 put off 延期

Think up 设计 put on 穿上(衣服等)

Try on 试穿 (衣服等)try out试验(机器、想法等)

Hand in 交出 turn down拒绝

Look over 检查 turn in 交出

Look up查询(生词、电话号码等)turn off关上

Make out 了解 turn on 打开(开关等)

Pick out 挑选

13.动词+介词+宾语

I callon him yesterday.

结构类似的短语:

Call for 要求  go over复习

Come across=run into=meet…by chance偶遇

Look sfter照顾 look for寻找

Get over=recover from复原

Look into调查 get through 做完

Take after像

14.动词+介词+名词(代词)的重要短语:

14.1.agree on…就(条约等)达成协议。

We finally agreed on the contract.=we reached an agreement on the contract.

14.2.agree to+事物(同意某事)

I agree to his coming here.

14.3agree with+sb.(同意某人)

I agreed him on this point.

14.4.consist of…包括……

This class consists of 10students.=this class is composted of 10students.=this class is made up of 10 students.

14.5.argue with sb.与某人争论

argue over sth.争论某事

approve of sth.赞同某事

complain about/of抱怨……

concent to同意

care for喜欢comment on评论

count on=depend on=rely on依赖

laugh at取笑

Hear from有…某人的的音讯,接到某人的来信

15.动词+宾语+介词+宾语的重要短语:

Add …to…

Add this number to that number.

Blame…for…

He blamed me for the fault.

Congratulate… on…

I congratulated him on his success.

He explained it to me.

He won't excuse me for being rude.

16.重要的三词及多词短语:

He fell in love with she.

He willget in touch with her when he got to New York.

He has made up his mind to study hard.=he has decided to study hard.

Take charge of=be in charge of负责

Take care of=look after照顾

Have coplete access to有完全使用权

Students have complete access to books in the libary.学生们可以任意使用图书馆的书。

I look forward to seeing you soon.我期盼很快能见到你。

17.prefer的用法:

17.1.prefer+名词/动名词+to+名词/动名词

I prefer going to the movies to watching TV.我喜欢看电影胜过看电视。

17.2.prefer to+原形动词+(instead of+动名词)/rather than +原形动词

I prefer to go to the movies instead of watching TV.=I prefer to go to the movied rather than watch TV.

18.mind的用法:

Mind+if从句=mind+动名词

Would you mind if I opened the door?=would you mind my opening the door?

19.动词+动名词的结构~下列动词只能接动名词不能接不定式:

Admit 承认 mention 提到

Avoid 避免 pardon 原谅

Appreciate 感激 miss 想念

Consider 考虑  practise=practice练习

Delay 延期    quit 停止

Mind 介意 risk冒险

Deny 否认 postpone 推迟

Detest 憎恨 resent 愤恨

Enjoy 喜欢 regret 后悔

Escape逃避 keep 保持

Excuse 原谅 forgive 原谅

Finish 结束 imagine 想象

20.prevent sb. from V-ing阻止某人从事……

The heavy rain prevented me getting to work on time.

注意:以下动词与prevent结构相同:

Ban,prohibit,bar,stop,keep,save,restrain

特:forbid也表禁止不同的是不与from连用,而是forbid sb.to +V.

I forbid him to smoke here.

21.encourage sb.toV.鼓励某人从事……

Discourage sb. from V-ing使某人不敢从事……。

22.persuade sb. to aV劝某人去……

Persuade sb.from V-ing劝阻某人……

23.resemble sb./sth.像……

You resemble your brother.=you bear a close resemblance to your brother.=you look like your brother.

24.decide、determine:

24.1.decide表“决定”,作及物动词时,可接不定式和名词性从句作宾语,

I've decided to take a trip to Tokyo this summer.

I have ddecided on him as  representative of our company.

We decided against John'sidea,thinking that it was not feasible.

24.2.determine①表“判定=judge”表“决定=decide”可用名词性从句或名词作宾语。

②过去分词determined作形容词用,表“下定决心的”be determined to V决心要……。

I'm determined to go on with the project even if I may run into many set backs.(即便可能会遇到许多挫折,我决心继续该项目)

25.afford:表“有能力买”、“有能力从事……”一定要与can或cannot连用,afford接不定式或名词作宾语。

Ican afford the car.=i can afford to buy the car.

26.wait&await

26.1.wait表“等候”vi.与for连用;但wait也可作及物动词用于下列短语中:

Wait one's turn等候某人的机会

I'mwaiting my turn to take revenge.

26.2.await表“等候……”为及物动词,后接表事物的名词作宾语。

Await sth=wait for sth

27.succeed&fail:

27.1succeed可作不及物动词,表“成功”,与介词in连用方。

He succeeded inbusiness after years of hard work.

How many of you have succeed in passing the test?

27.2.succeed也可作及物动词表“继承”,以人作宾语。

He succeeded his father as president of this company.

27.3.fail作不及物动词,表“失败”,后接不定式作副词修饰fail。

He fail to pass the test.

27.4.fail也可作及物动词,表“未通过考试”、“辜负某人”、“使某人不及格”

The teacher failed one-third students.

You are the only person i trust don'tfail me.

28.depend&depend on:

Depend不加宾语,表“依情形而定”;depend on加宾语,表“依赖……”

I depend on him to give me sdvice.

29.感官动词:Look /sound/smell/tast/feel其后只能接形容词,若要接名词,必须加like:

He looks happy.

He looks like a happy man.

30.意图动词的用法:表“设法”、“企图”的接不定式try to do/attempt to do/manage to do/endeavor to do。

I'll endeavor to save our company from going bankrupt.

31.anger&angry:

Anger是及物动词,表“使某人生气”

Angry是形容词表“生气的”,有如下用法:

Be sngry with+人 生某人的气

Be Angry at+物  气某物

He angered me=I was angered by him.=I was angry with him.

32.授予动词:授予动词有两个宾语,三种句型,意思完全相同。

①主语+授予动词+间接宾语(人)+直接宾语(物)I asked him a question.

②主语+授予动词+直接宾语(物)+(to/for/of)+间接宾语(人)

I asked a question of him.

*a*ask/expect/require/demand用介词of;

*b*make /do/ leave/ buy用介词for;

Iplayed a joke on him.

③被动语态:人+be+授予动词过去分词+宾语he was given a book(by me)

33.知觉动词:分三类,“看”,“听”,“感觉”,加宾语后再接原形动词或现在分词,用原形动词表强调“已发生的事实”;用现在分词表“正在……”

33.1.看:look at/see/watch/notice/behold

Isaw him cry.

I saw him crying.

33.2.听:listen to /hear

Iheard him talk.

I heard him talking.

33.3.感觉feel

Ifelt him leave.

Ifelt him leaving.

34.remember&forget®ret接不定式作宾语表未发生的,要……;接现在分词作宾语,表已经发生的,曾……。

I'll remember to see him.

II remember seeing him before.

Iforgot to see him.

Iforgot seeing him before.

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